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Delegation meets Maharashtra chief minister. Experts back NGOs’ demand for concrete government initiatives
High real estate prices have led many home buyers to opt for rental accommodation over the past few months, perhaps in the hope that house prices would cool off. Now, it seems, that this is causing a rental housing shortage which is also heating up rental costs.
On Tuesday, a delegation of non-governmental organisations met Maharashtra chief minister Prithviraj Chavan and urged him to take steps to create housing stock on land occupied by the railways and the bus transport undertaking in Mumbai, with a special emphasis on rental housing.
Some experts concur with the view and have supported the petition, saying that the shortage of rental housing is climbing to a worrying stage.
"It is typical to focus only on the mega cities which have a lot of economic activity and therefore a large quantum of inbound workforce to drive rental demand. If we factor in the 30-plus cities in India, with populations of more than a million, that also generate considerable demand for rental accommodation, the problem increases in size," says Ashutosh Limaye, director-strategic consulting, Jones Lang LaSalle India.
The biggest segment in demand is the mid-end sector which caters to the average salaried class. The problem is that participation by the organised realty sector is low and only a handful of projects are taken up by the unorganised sector. And as the sector consolidates, there is a high chance that the shortage of rental accommodation will get more acute.
Data from the government stamp duty department shows a 35% rise in the number of lease agreements in Mumbai in 2010.
The delegation that met the chief minister has asked for the land locked away under the now repealed Urban Land Ceiling Regulation Act to be made available for rental housing. Incidentally, MMRDA declared in 2009 that it would start a rental housing scheme, but this has not materialised yet. However, a couple of weeks back, news came of environmental clearance granted for 25,000 rental housing units in the Thane and Raigad areas. These houses will be aimed mostly at the low-end segment.
"The MMRDA model is a good example of how government agencies can boost the rental housing sector. It is a workable and unique model than can be tried in all congested cities across the country," said Mr Limaye. "However, the government alone cannot service the whole bulk of demand for rental housing single-handedly. This means that the private sector has to become more involved."
An area that also deserves attention is the imbalance in the availability of rental accommodation for those who are single and for those with families, which exists in most cities.
Sanjay Chaudhary, business head of Indiabulls Housing Finance points out, "Mumbai is facing a huge-demand supply gap in the housing sector, with less than 50% of the demand being met." High prices have kept customers away from buying houses. But the shortage of rental accommodation that is building up will add to their worries.
Navi Mumbai, Worli and Andheri are said to be areas that offer rental accommodations at reasonable rates. It is estimated that rental value has gone up by 11% in the last one year. According to estimates on 99acres.com, an internet realty portal, in the Palm Beach area, in Navi Mumbai, rental rates have shot up by as much as 47% in the last one year.
The Central Information Commission and various high courts have ruled in favour of students seeking to see their answer sheets. While a final decision on the matter is awaited from the Supreme Court, last week’s order by Nepal’s Supreme Court endorsing a similar decision by its National Information Commission, is a boost for students
Whether it is the school board exam, a university test or any competitive exam, there is always much dissatisfaction over the marks obtained. There have been cases of students with brilliant academic records scoring average marks and average students receiving red lines for subjects they were certain they would pass. Till the Right to Information (RTI) Act came into existence in 2005, the only hope for such students was to apply for a revaluation of their answer sheets, which usually was a mere re-totaling of the marks.
But, can access to answer sheets really change much? The case of a tribal student who failed the examination for the post of ‘gram sevak’ proves that this might even change one’s destiny.
Vijay Kuvlekar, state information commissioner, Pune division, says the student’s answer sheet had marked him as failed. So, he applied to see the paper, but his request was turned down by the officer. Therefore, the student invoked Section 6 of the RTI Act to get a copy of his answer sheet and also the list of candidates who had passed the examination from his batch. But the public information officer (PIO) refused to give the information, and so did the first appellate authority.
The student filed an appeal before Mr Kuvlekar. At the hearing, the PIO cited High Court and Supreme Court judgments to justify turning down the student’s request. Mr Kuvlekar stated that since this was a public examination for candidates seeking appointment to a post of public servant, citizens had the right to information about who was being appointed and under what merit. Since answer sheets were the most credible proof, transparency was essential.
Again, the officer pleaded his inability to give the list of candidates who had passed the exam, and he citied government resolutions (GR) that overruled this facility for the examinees. However, he agreed to provide a copy of the student’s answer sheet.
Mr Kuvlekar points out, “The answer sheet showed that the student stood meritoriously in the ‘selected’ list. Subsequently, he was selected for the post of ‘gram sevak’.”
In another case, Kolkata student Pritam Rooj obtained 91.6% in the Class X examination and 80.8% at the Higher Secondary (Class XII) examinations. He enrolled for the mathematics honours course at Presidency College, Calcutta University. In the Part I Bachelor’s degree examination, in 2005, Pritam secured 52%. The following year, he appeared for the Part II exam and got 208 marks out of a maximum 400. He was shocked to see that he got only 28 marks out of 100 in the fifth paper.
Pritam applied for re-evaluation of the paper. On re-evaluation, he received our marks more in the fifth paper and a fresh corrected mark sheet was issued to him. However, since he did not get a first class in his Bachelor’s course, he could not get admission to the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
On 14 August 2007, Pritam made a request under the RTI Act, seeking a copy of his university answer sheet. The PIO replied: “In response to your above application I am to inform you that it has been decided that henceforth no inspection of any answer script of any examination conducted by the University shall be allowed to any applicant under the Right to Information Act, 2005. Thus we cannot entertain your application and the same is rejected.”
Pritam was compelled to seek legal intervention. While the University refused to divulge information, the Calcutta High Court gave an order in Pritam’s favour.
Divya Jyoti Jaipuriar, RTI activist and legal luminary, writes in his blog: “The information commissions all across the country have not been adopting a consistent and uniform approach on the issue of disclosing answer sheets under the Right to Information Act. The Central Information Commission has adopted an approach that answer sheets of school examinations and some competitive examinations can be disclosed, but the answer sheets of university and board examinations cannot be disclosed as it would result in rendering the system unworkable. This approach of the Central Information Commission was taken as a defence in Pritam Rooj’s case.” (http://www.jaipuriar.blogspot.com/)
“The judgment in Pritam Rooj versus Calcutta University (AIR 2008 CAL 118) is a landmark judgment in this regard as it has rejected the contention of the university that the disclosure of the answer sheet will render the system unworkable and ordered the university to disclose the answer sheet to the applicant. The Court also rejected the approach of the Central Information Commission which allowed to disclose the answer sheets of certain examination, but disallowed to disclose answer sheets of other examinations.’’
In April 2007, the Central Information Commission heard a cluster of such cases pertaining to citizens seeking answer sheets of CBSE examinations, as well as those for government jobs. Most of the PIOs declined information citing Section 8, and stating that the relationship between an examiner and examinee is a ‘fiduciary’ relationship and thus is exempted from the RTI.
The CIC stated, “Any relationship, including a fiduciary relationship, is bound to have mutual rights and obligations. Thus, in the case before us, where there is a fiduciary relationship between the examiner and the authority conducting the examination, the obligations are mutual. This relationship does not end once the evaluation of the answer sheets is complete. The concerned authority has to take care that by disclosing the identity of the examiner, there is no possibility of an eventual harm to the examiner. Thus, even while disclosing the evaluated answer sheets, the authority conducting the examination is obliged to ensure that the name and identity of the examiner is not disclosed.”
It further stated that: “The fiduciary relationship between the examiner and the authority conducting the examination is personal and it can extend only insofar as the disclosure of the identity of the examiner is concerned, but it cannot be stretched beyond that point and as such neither Section 8(1)(e) nor Section 8(1)(j) exempts disclosure of the evaluated answer sheets if the authority concerned ensures that the name and identity of the examiners, invigilators, scrutinizers and any other person involved with the process is kept confidential.’’
Says Venkatesh Nayak, programme coordinator, Access to Information Programme Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI), “Students and examinees have been demanding the right to access their evaluated answer scripts under the RTI Act. While the examination boards and recruiting authorities, including the Union Public Service Commission, have adamantly refused to disclose these documents, information commissions and high courts have ordered disclosure. These matters are now pending before the Supreme Court. The Nepal supreme court’s decision is a trendsetter in the region.’’
Mr Nayak said, “So far, no high court has turned down the appeals of students. They have unanimously stated that in the interest of the students, accountability and transparency is required. A student has the right to know how well he has done. Some public authorities have argued that it would open the floodgates of such requests, but the Calcutta High Court turned this down saying that the process needs to be robust and transparent to ensure a proper system. There are many cases pending before the Supreme Court, but the expectation is that its ruling is not going to be any different from the high court decisions that have favoured the students. As it is, many institutions are already making this information public, so what’s all the fuss about?’’
HERE’S HOW TO APPLY TO ACCESS A COPY OF THE ANSWER SHEET
If you have doubts about the marks you have secured, here’s how to apply to access a copy of the answer sheet. The information has been sourced from the website www.rti.org.
The Right to Information Act 2005
Application to obtain information
By Speed Post
The Public Information Officer
1. Name of the applicant:
2. Full address:
Mobile phone number:
3. Particulars of information required:
My son / daughter / ward _____ (write name here) _____ appeared for _____ standard examination of your board in the month of _____ . A photocopy of the mark sheet is attached for ready reference.
Please permit me and my son / daughter / ward to inspect his / her answer sheet/s as well as other relevant records and also provide me certified photocopies of his / her answer sheet/s pertaining to the following subjects:
4. Details of payment of filing fees:
5. Please rush the information to me by Speed / Registered Post.
I am an Indian citizen. Please reply in English.
6. Please also provide me file notings and action taken report on this application along with your reply.
Note: I am emphatically drawing your kind attention to,
(A) 49-page judgment of a two-judge bench of the Honourable High Court of Calcutta in M.A.T. No. 275 of 2008 in University of Calcutta and others versus Pritam Rooj.
(B) Judgment dated 30-08-2010 of the Honourable Kerala High Court in WP(C). No. 6532 of 2006(C).
© Madras High Court judgment dated 13-09-2010 in R Ramasamy versus Dr Ambedkar Law University in W.P. (MD) No.4815 of 2008.
Signature of applicant
I authorise and permit the public information officer, to supply information sought by my father / mother / guardian and also allow me and my father / mother / guardian to inspect relevant answer sheet/s and connected records as requested per this application. I waive notices under section 11 of RTI Act 2005. I am an Indian citizen.
Signature of examinee:
SOME USEFUL GUIDELINES, courtesy www.rti.org
1. If the student has not completed 18 years of age, the application has to be made by his / her father or mother or guardian to be on the safer side. The student has to give consent only.
If the student is above 18 years of age on the date of filing the application, he himself can file the application under RTI, with relevant changes in the format described, or get it filed by his father / mother / guardian in the format given by signing the authority portion.
2. Please make payment of the filing fee as per RTI rules of your state to which the examining board belongs. CBSE is a central government entity and for this you should pay Rs10 by postal order, drawn in favour of the Accounts Officer, Central Board of Secondary Education, made payable at Delhi.
3. Please use the format as prescribed by your state RTI rules, or if not prescribed use the format given. Do not omit the reference to the judgment of the High Court of Calcutta in any format. Add it as a note.
5. The address of the public information officer is available at the RTI link on the website of the relevant examination board.
6. The format described can also be followed university exams with the appropriate changes.
7. If you do not get a reply within 40 days of mailing this application, or if the reply is not satisfactory, file the first appeal immediately. For details visit: http://www.rtiindia.org/forum/blogs/jps50/341-first-appeal-state-govts.html
8. In case of difficulty, post your problem on the portal and members will assist you. Please visit
(Vinita Deshmukh is a senior editor, author and convener of Pune Metro Jagruti Abhiyaan. She can be reached at [email protected].)
A study argues that there is too much uncertainty in biometrics to predict how well the technology will perform in the real world, much less support investment in this technology
Three scholars who have provided the academic foundation for the biometrics industry, particularly in the Western world, say that the level of uncertainty in biometrics is so great that tests prove nothing.
The academicians have, in a paper titled "Fundamental issues in biometric performance testing: A modern statistical and philosophical framework for uncertainty assessment", argued that the level of uncertainty in biometrics is so great that they cannot be used to predict how well the technology will perform in the real world and therefore this cannot support a valid argument for investment in biometrics.
The academicians are James L Wayman from San José State University, Antonio Possolo, head of the statistical engineering division at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Anthony J Mansfield from UK National Physical Laboratory, all recognised as stalwarts of the biometrics industry.
However, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), which has embarked on a tagging programme that is based on biometrics, is silent on the report. The institution has, till now, been quick to associate with other academic groups.
While UIDAI claims that biometrics will allow it to deliver a unique identification, it has goofed up its own test results while pushing its ambitious Aadhaar project. (Read, 'How UIDAI goofed up pilot test results to press forward with UID scheme'.)
Since its inception, UIDAI has tried to force the use of biometrics for the UID number as the ultimate solution. UIDAI conducted a proof of the concept trial of the Aadhaar project between March and June 2010. The results of the concept trial, or scenario test, suggest that biometrics cannot be reliable and may encounter huge problems while dealing with false positives.
David Moss, who spent eight years campaigning against the UK's National ID (NID) card scheme, sees hard times ahead for the global mass consumer biometrics industry. He said, "Not only has the industry lost its academic support, but governments are starting to abandon ship. President Obama's plans for trusted identity on the web make no mention of biometrics. The same goes for the UK's plans for identity assurance, in which case also there is no mention of relying on biometrics at all."
"The superstitious belief in mass consumer biometrics is like an illness, it's like the tulip mania that affected Holland in the 17th century. And now, perhaps, it is passing. Even in Holland, where they announced last month that they have suspended their plans to develop a centralised population register recording every person's biometrics," Mr Moss said.
There are three types of tests used for biometrics. One is the lab or technology test; the other is the operational or field test; and the third is a scenario test. A biometrics technology test is conducted in the lab and is entirely computer-based. An operational test is conducted in the field, in the real world, with the biometrics package coming under attack from different, unpredictable sets. In a scenario test, researchers recruit a putatively representative sample of the population so that they can test the biometrics packages with real people under still fairly controllable conditions. The UIDAI used the scenario test for UID.
On the scenario test, the three academicians write, "The test repeatability and reproducibility observed in technology tests are lost in scenario testing due to the loss of statistical control over a wide range of influence quantities. Our inability to apply concepts of statistical control to any or all of these factors will increase the level of uncertainty in our results and translate to loss of both repeatability and reproducibility. Test data from scenario evaluations should not be used as input to mathematical models of operational environments that require high levels of certainty for validity."
This exactly is the reason why governments across the globe are not emphasising on biometrics anymore. Last year, the newly-elected government in the UK scrapped the National ID programme citing huge costs, impracticality and ungovernable breaches of privacy associated with the programme. Last month, the US released its 'National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace' signed by president Obama and nowhere has the 45-page document used the word 'biometrics'.
Also in April, the Dutch government suspended its plan to develop a centralised flat print fingerprint population register, citing concerns about security and reliability of the system.
However, this is not the case with India, where it seems that there is ample money and nobody cares about security, reliability and privacy, and everybody from politicians, corporates to the media are 'greased', directly or indirectly. This is the reason why UIDAI is forcing the UID number onto gullible citizens.
"Why is India spending billions on Aadhaar, which depends on biometrics whose reliability is, so say the titans, utterly unknowable? And will the UIDAI ever answer my question how they can claim to offer unique identification when, based on their own figures, they would have to perform 18,000,000,000,000 (18 trillion or 18 lakh crore) manual checks to prove uniqueness? And why do they think Aadhaar will eradicate corruption, rather than automate corruption," asks Mr Moss.
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