Paving the way towards prosperity with global migration
Last week, after more than a year of intense negotiations, United Nation member states, except US and Hungary, agreed on the first-ever Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. The pact aims to address the challenges of international migration, strengthen migrant rights and provide a platform for cooperation.
 
In the current scenario, it is a significant achievement as the pact has the potential to change how the world approaches migration - one of the most politically debatable issues today. There is stark contrast between the academicians view on migration which is backed by economic evidence and the public discourse on migration that in most cases shapes the political agenda.
 
On one hand, migration is considered to pave way for growth and prosperity for both immigrants and the host country. For migrating individuals, it is the most effective way to reduce poverty. A World Bank study mentions that migrants' incomes increase three to six times when they move from lower- to higher-income countries. The average income gain for a young unskilled worker moving to the United States is estimated to be about $14,000 per year. Similarly, research suggests that if 100 million young people migrate from developing to developed countries, it will increase the host country's GDP by $1.4 trillion, thus bringing prosperity to the nations.
 
On the other hand, despite compelling economic evidence, there is strong political opposition to immigrants in many countries. This opposition comes from the view that immigrants scale down jobs for the citizens, drive down the wages by creating competition in the market. The labour market concentration of immigrants creates anxiety and insecurity in the mind of native born workers as immigrants are ready to accept low wages and can work in more demanding work conditions. Destination countries often blame immigrants for their economic woes and accuse them of the displacement of native-born citizens from their jobs. This is the reason that immigration was one of the top three concerns during the last round of elections in the United States and every Western European country.
 
It is important to acknowledge that studies do show a displacement effect among the citizens. The concentration of immigrants in certain destination countries, occupations, and regions driven by market forces i.e. to fulfil unmet demand is the main cause of the economic problems and cultural anxieties of local populations. However, this impact is limited to low skilled and less educated workers where substitution is easy. In fact, the group of native born citizens that do not compete directly with immigrants experience significant economic gains. Also, the displacement costs are outweighed by the economic benefits generated for the destination country by labour mobility.
 
The evidence sheds light on the fact that immigration has unequal effects. It benefits workers in high-skilled jobs that are characterised by knowledge spillover and skill complementarities and creates huge costs for low skilled workers who mainly belong to the low and lower middle-income groups. This section of the society is already vulnerable, and any economic shocks can drive them below poverty line. This is the reason for strong political opposition to immigration.
 
However, changemakers should realise that ceasing the incoming immigrants in the destination country won't serve as a justification to the economic growth. For instance, The Penn Wharton Budget Model, capturing the economic impact of RAISE (a policy aimed towards reducing immigration levels by half) on US GDP, projected that a 50 per cent reduction of legal migration will reduce the US economy by two per cent and 4.6 million jobs by 2040. Similarly, countries like Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia that were predominantly labour scarce, have brought drastic transitions in the structure of their economies from primary to secondary and tertiary sector, through the adoption of friendly immigration policies.
 
It is critical to adhere to correct policies that are designed after addressing the legitimate economic concerns. The policymakers should work towards the twin goals of accruing maximum benefits from labour mobility and addressing the concerns of the displaced workers. Programs can be designed to aid the low skilled native-born workers to adjust with the changing scenario. Assistance mechanisms for displaced workers can involve skill development and training, transitory welfare benefits and unemployment insurance payments. The financing of such assistance programmes can be partially done by taxing the beneficiaries.
 
Policymakers should keep in mind that though rising immigration raises questions concerning displacement of native-born workers and economic constraints, the path to liberal migration with clearly designed immigration policies can facilitate economic integration and economic growth in the long run.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.
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Why Russian Spies Really Like American Universities
Under the alias Cynthia Murphy, Russian spy Lydia Guryeva attended Columbia Business School, and ingratiated herself with a key fundraiser for Hillary Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign. Guryeva’s instructions from Moscow, according to a 2010 FBI complaint, were to “strengthen…ties w. classmates on daily basis incl. professors who can help in job search and who will have (or already have) access to secret info” and to report “on their detailed personal data and character traits w. preliminary conclusions about their potential (vulnerability) to be recruited by Service.”
 
Now another graduate student at an urban East Coast university, who similarly cultivated powerbrokers and political operatives, is accused of being a Russian spy and taking orders from high-ranking officials in her homeland. Maria Butina, who received a master’s degree in international relations this past spring from American University in Washington, D.C., courted the National Rifle Association’s top guns and sought access to Republican presidential candidates Scott Walker and Donald Trump. She pleaded innocent last week to charges of conspiring to act as a foreign agent. 
 
If the charges against Butina are accurate, she’s only the latest in a long line of Russian agents to infiltrate U.S. universities. Dating back to the Soviet era, Russian spies have sought to take advantage of academia's lax security, collaborative, global culture, and revolving door with government. Russian intelligence understands that today’s professor of international relations may be tomorrow’s assistant secretary of state, and vice versa. Although cyber-spying and hacking offer opportunities to glean secrets at less personal risk, the traditional strategies of human espionage persist, and sending a spy to school is prominent among them.
 
In that respect, little has changed since 1938, when Semyon Markovich Semyonov became the first Soviet agent to enroll at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and made contacts vital to stealing scientific secrets. Or since 1958, when KGB officer Oleg Kalugin entered Columbia’s journalism school. After graduation, posing as a Radio Moscow correspondent at the United Nations, Kalugin attended events at Columbia and reported back on them to Moscow. His report on a speech about U.S.-Soviet relations by Zbigniew Brzezinski, then a Columbia professor and later national security adviser to President Jimmy Carter, earned kudos from the Communist Party’s Central Committee.
 
After that, “I went all across the country, from Harvard to Columbia and the West Coast, listening to what people said and reporting it if I thought it was interesting,” Kalugin told me. He rose to head the KGB’s foreign counterintelligence branch before falling out of favor in Russia, moving to Washington, D.C., and becoming an American citizen.
 
Sometimes, Russian agents join the academic community as students or instructors. Of Guryeva and the other nine “illegals”—sleeper agents without diplomatic cover—who pleaded guilty in 2010 to conspiring to act as foreign agents and were swapped back to Russia, seven went to U.S. universities, including Harvard, The New School, and the University of Washington. One taught politics for a semester at Baruch College, lambasting American foreign policy
 
In other cases, agents hold diplomatic posts at an embassy or consulate and forage in nearby campuses for recruits and information. It’s easier, cheaper and less conspicuous for Russian intelligence to enlist a student or professor who can be steered to a federal agency than to lure someone already in a sensitive government position. Exploiting open campuses, spies slip unnoticed into lectures, seminars and cafeterias, where they befriend the computer scientist or Pentagon adviser sitting beside them.
 
Butina enrolled in American University’s School of International Service in the summer of 2016, university spokesman Mark Story said. She concentrated in cyber policy and became a research assistant at the university’s Kogod School of Business. With research funding from the Kogod Cybersecurity Governance Center, she and two professors, Mark A. Clark and J. Alberto Espinosa, co-authored a March 2018 paper on “Cybersecurity Knowledge Networks.” (The paper is still on the center’s website.) Clark and Espinosa declined comment. Continue Reading…
 
Courtesy: ProPublica.org
 
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Why Twitter won't ban Trump even after threatening Iran
US President Donald Trump is unlikely to get the boot from Twitter even after threatening Iran with dire consequences as the microblogging site sees the world leaders with a different lens.
 
In a tweet on late Sunday, Trump warned his Iranian counterpart Hassan Rouhani that if Tehran threatened the US again, it would suffer "consequences the likes of which few have ever suffered before".
 
The tweet in all-caps followed an apparent warning by Rouhani, in which he asked the US President to "not play with the lion's tail, because you will regret it eternally".
 
The kind of threat that Trump made on Twitter on Sunday could have attracted penalty from the social network for any regular person as Twitter's policy bars users from making threats of violence on its platform. 
 
In December last year, Twitter began enforcing new rules on violent and hateful content posted on its platform to reduce the amount of online abuse, hate speech, violent threats and harassment associated with its service.
 
"You may not make specific threats of violence or wish for the serious physical harm, death, or disease of an individual or group of people," as per Twitter's rule about violent threats.
 
But for world leaders, Twitter has a different standard as it believes that removing their controversial tweets would hide important information people should be able to see and debate.
 
In a blog post in January, the company acknowledged that there has been a lot of discussion about political figures and world leaders on the platform.
 
Blocking world leaders on Twitter won't silence them, but it would certainly hamper necessary discussion around their words and actions, the company said. 
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.
 

 

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