Letter from Canada: Immigrating to Canada Is Not a Bed of Roses for Every One
The resumés have been tweaked. The job fairs attended. The employment agencies visited. Yet, Annet Thomas struggles to land a job in her field—a common grouse of thousands of Indians who migrate to Canada as highly trained professionals. Under the Canadian government's express entry system, India is the top source country for Canada's immigration system that accepts 300,000 immigrants annually from around the world.
But that immigration overload has proven to be a nightmare for professionals like Annet Thomas as she hunts for jobs that match her experience. She was a senior consultant for Oracle at Bengaluru, with 11 years of software developing experience.“Many of us have great experience and education,” she laments overwhelmed with the training sessions and the networking events which haven't yielded results as yet.
And, yet, Ms Thomas could be considered ‘lucky’—she doesn't require another degree, licence, certification or retraining in Canada to be eligible for a job. Her problem is that she's stuck with the tag of ‘Canadian experience required’, demanded by many employers even when it isn't ‘technically’ mandated. "Once you've reached the interview table and aren't selected - that's different; but if you aren't even getting a call back, there's nothing you can do about it.” 
Sajid Khan, a very senior IT professional, found an 8-month contract IT assignment in Toronto, but says he's struggling to get a job because “recruiters come back saying I don't have enough senior Canadian experience.”
The definition of what constitutes ‘Canadian experience’ is sketchy. Some employers say there is a ‘comfort level’ with candidates who are ‘like them’—while immigrants could have strong accents, or lack soft skills— which could be problematic. Others say, "Employers aren't able to evaluate foreign qualifications and evaluate their experience.”
But those who've worked with immigrants and researched employers’ preferences candidly claim that ‘Canadian experience’, usually is code for not hiring racial minorities and is a form of racial discrimination.
A huge Canadian study, the largest of its kind, tested employer reactions to resumés with English-sounding names, and compared them to Asian names (Indian, Chinese and Pakistani). The study found that resumés with such names are 40% more likely to receive call-backs than resumés with Indian, Pakistani or Chinese names. The 2011 study, “Why do some employers prefer to interview Mathew but not Samir?”—ttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2018047 was conducted by an economist and University of Toronto's economics professor, Philip Oreopoulos, who sent over 12,000 resumés to employers from 3,225 job postings, in Canada's most diverse cities -Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.
As a part of the study, two sets of identical resumés with identical Canadian qualifications and Canadian work experience were sent to potential employers. The only difference was that one set had Anglophone names, while the other had Asian names. The English-sounding resumé candidates got a substantially higher call-backs from employers for that first crucial, foot-in-the door interview, in all the cities that claim to be the most ‘multicultural’! 
“The study is important because it actually shows the behaviour of employers engaged in the act of discriminating,  and it's like a smoking gun and very difficult to deny the evidence of widespread discrimination," says Jeffrey Reitz, director of ethnic immigration and pluralism studies at the Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy. 
Mr Reitz, who's worked with Professor Oreopoulos on a related follow-up study, https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/cpp.2017-033 says that when employers were asked about this behaviour, some responded and said they were worried about their language skills or the accent of those Asian candidates. “So they put it down to skill deficiencies - but those skills were visible in the resumé, which showed the applicant had a Canadian degree and had jobs in Canada, indicating that language skills was not an  issue,” he points out.
Mr Reitz, who has authored or co-authored eight books, book chapters and numerous articles on global immigration and multi-culturalism, adds, "Canadian employers show bias simply based on foreign names and this bias, possibly unconscious in many cases, constitutes racial discrimination, since it directly and unfairly disadvantages racial minorities.'. 
“The human resources (HR) industry is aware of these unconscious hidden biases,” says an HR business partner at a Vancouver-based multinational.  She explains that her staff is specifically trained to consciously call candidates whose resumés they ‘didn't like on first glance’. 
A migrant from India, the manager says, newcomers have a learning curve as well—as it’s a different world out here. For instance, resumé writing in Canada is different and not many newcomers give it the attention it needs. "In India, we concentrate on education and experience; but here, one has to assume you are a brand, and sell yourself in the resumé—with your personality coming through at the same time.” Many newcomers also aren't culturally conditioned to ‘talk about oneself’ or think ‘it is boasting’; but, the first question in most interviews is: “Tell me something about yourself.”
Navigating the HR landscape is a big stumbling block, as many recruiters are risk-averse and would rather take the easy way out instead of taking chances with newcomers, say sociologists. 
“Many recruiters work in a very focused way—and I don't mean that in a complimentary way. In my opinion, many are really poorly paid sorters, and don't even understand the business which could lead to good applicants slipping through the cracks,” says the manager who has served on various immigrant councils helping newcomers integrate in Vancouver. 
Surranna Sandy, CEO (chief executive officer) of Skills for Change (SFC), a 36- year-old organisation, helping around 14,000 people annually, says that the company’s focus is to get newcomers prepared for the labour market; but importantly, they bring employers to see how hiring of immigrants can add to an employer’s productivity and bottom-line.
Customising specific job fairs for employers is a part of that process, as is coaching newcomers to develop their soft skills, understand the work culture and the importance of being a team player. SFC also teaches newcomers the ‘language of the trade’ used by Canadian employers in their specific sectors; this helps them prepare better for a job interview.
Efforts to get employers and immigrants together in a room is important as a survey showed that employers were least likely to use newcomers as one of their strategies to combat their labour shortages.
The 2018 labour shortage survey of 1,200 companies in the small and medium sector, by the BDC Bank, shows that a mere 18% said they would use immigrants for labour shortages, compared to 57% who disagreed with that approach. Hiring less qualified persons, or even younger staff and retirees, were suggested as more likely strategies that would be used to overcome labour shortages. “It's not that they don't want to, it's just that it's not on their radar and not traditionally in the network of places they would look at (and that is true), especially for smaller companies," says Pierre Cléroux, vice-president, research and chief economist at BDC. Mr Cléroux says 40% of companies in the SME (small and medium enterprise) sector are facing labour shortages and the BDC report suggests hiring immigrants as one of the solutions.
But Ms Sandy, an award winning professional in her field, says that a cohesive effort to acknowledge the real reasons behind the problems faced by newcomers is paramount. “I can prepare the immigrants for success, but if the broader community isn't interested, and there's still racism and Islamophobia, which aren't openly discussed, it doesn't matter how much money is pumped into the programmes”. The government needs to do more by way of awareness campaigns that openly talk of the pervasiveness of racism and the way it impacts immigrants, the value they bring to the economy, and the cost to the economy when immigrants are deskilled.
Being underemployed or unemployed results in wage losses that run into billions of dollars, says a 2016 study by The Conference Board of Canada, a research and policy think tank. Kareem El-Assal, senior research associate of immigration at the Board, says that 844,000 Canadians face a host of employment barriers.
Immigrants (who made up roughly 75% of that group), lose up to $12.7 billion in wages each year as a result of this problem. A similar study done by the Board in 2001 revealed that Canadians, as a whole, lose about $4 billion-$6 billion due to underemployment or unemployment. That figure, in the 2016 study, ballooned to $13 billion-$17 billion.
“Regardless of inflation, the size of growth is exponential and it just goes to show that we really need employers and regulatory bodies to tackle the challenge,” says Mr El-Assal. In Canada, it’s not uncommon for skilled immigrants to get tired, disillusioned and not have the finances or inclination to retrain and re-certify themselves. And, if they do have the time and money, they are still not sure of getting a job in their chosen field of expertise.
Organisations, such as Acces Employment, provide sector-specific programmes to help immigrants. Allison Pond, their CEO, says the goal is to get them jobs in their own field as quickly as possible. The agency works with over 2,000 employers and provides mentoring programmes that connect immigrants with employers in their field. It also has sector-specific bridging programmes in engineering, finance, sales and marketing, IT and HR that helps newcomers get the required qualifications needed by Canadian employers.
In spite of this reality, Indian immigrants view Canada as a country where they can realise their dreams. “The pollution in Bengaluru, and the congestion is very bad and I don't really see myself going back yet,” says Ms Thomas, who is job-hunting and living with her brother in Toronto, while her husband holds the fort in Bengaluru.
An education system equivalent to that of the US and a lifestyle ‘similar to the US’ prompted Richa Majithia to also move from the US to Canada where she is not constantly worrying about her status under the Trump era.
First-generation Indians say they would never be able to afford the kind of life they have in Canada—big houses, cars, healthcare, vacations and an excellent education for their children. They believe that even if they have struggled, the “lives of their children are made for the future.” For many senior immigrants, free healthcare and social security benefits provided by the Canadian government are a definite boon.
After working at a gas station for some years, Ms Thomas' brother has, finally, found a job as an engineer in Bombardier and that makes it all ‘worth it’, feels Thomas!
(Rakshande Italia is an Indian journalist, who immigrated to Canada in 2001 and has worked with several top newspapers in India and Canada. She can be contacted on [email protected])
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    Allen E A

    2 years ago

    I have read a lot of articles assuring a well-furnished future out there but your article was the bitter truth I was secretly hoping not to stumble upon. You have heightened my senses into better analysing the situation in contrast to my previous and almost ignorant state. I thank you for the insight and I hope you write more articles that will serve as a peephole for people like me.

    Madhumathi Parthasarathy

    2 years ago

    Very nicely written article, resonating with many of the IT professionals here. As a person who is undergoing this for the past 2 years, I can very well relate to it.

    Vijay Gupta

    2 years ago

    My brother has immigrated to Calgary in 2015. This article is true . Many companies are seeking for Canadian experience. First of all, it's illogical to ask an immigrant to show Canadian experience. Moreover, the government of Canada is very well aware of this problem. So either the government should stop inviting immigration or instruct their companies to judge the candidate based on their knowledge and experience.

    Manisha Shashiraj Shetty

    2 years ago

    Canadian employers seem to be using the crutch of 'Canadian experience' to practise racial bias. A telling comment of the mindset still prevalent today.

    Thrity Z. SETHNA

    2 years ago

    The scourge of our times, racial discrimination. Instead of getting more accepting of others, we all are becoming more paranoid and intolerant of each other.



    In Reply to Thrity Z. SETHNA 2 years ago

    It is not Canada's fault. The problem with majority of indians is they want to flee India and live peaceful lives without contributing anything. See the % of indians desperate to migrate to Canada. No other country is so shameless to desert ones nation in such huge numbers. Canada has to make strict rules to prevent indians from taking away jobs of locals

    Rakesh Mohan

    In Reply to pallabob 2 years ago

    Europe is a small continent & yet these white rabbits have multiplied, conquered & killed the natives & call themselves natives n call themselves Canadians, Americans, Australians etc. Please tell me what kind of reproductive breed ru? At least we Indians legally moved to canada because u rabbits r inefficient.
    Ur govt is scared n incapable to be independent to have fools like u. Your country is dependant on others coz it's handicapped.

    Annamala i

    In Reply to pallabob 2 years ago

    First of all Mr pallabob, neither Indians nor any other people would desert one's nation. Second thing is if someone's stealing local jobs, he must have more skills than the localites. Third thing is maybe we are desperate, but leaving a country where you have spent decades. How could you possibly say that we didn't contribute anything.

    Neil Mathews

    In Reply to Annamala i 2 years ago

    It is called desertion when you leave a well paid job in India to migrate to another country where you have no job. All these Indians who are leaving are not going for just few years. They are going to Canada to become Canadian citizen. They don't want to live in India anymore and want nothing to do with India. If you consider paying taxes as doing something for the country then ya they did contribute something but that's the extent of it.


    In Reply to Neil Mathews 2 years ago

    Yes of course people have paid job in India. There is no point in saying you already have a job.
    What's has that got anything to do with immigration. Even CIC requires you to have atleast one year of job experience in past three years in the same domain to be even eligible to apply.

    Yes of course they are moving to live in Canada permanently. News flash for you: This is the definition of immigration. Get a dictionary.

    Agreed, They don't want to live in India anymore. "They want nothing to do with India" - How do you know that? Everyone have family and relatives in India. And they have lots of stuff to do in India. Many a people come to India every year for at least a month to spend time with their family, relatives and friends. So in summary, you are wrong about this.

    Paying taxes IS doing for the country. The government and the country runs on the tax money paid by its citizens. That's one of the biggest thing that you can do for your country: Pay taxes. And that's not it. These people are working, whether a job, or a businessman, or a service provider. But they are doing something every day with their lives. They are not withering lying in their beds everyday. The work they do: that's contributing to the society, that's contributing to the growth of company.
    Most of the people do these only: work their part and pay their taxes. There is nothing shameful about this.

    Your comment shows the incorrect perception of other people, which is fuelled by RACISM, HATRED AND FEAR.

    So do some research, apply logic and get above the racism, irrational hatred and fear. Because if you don't know this (your definitely don't know this), Canada needs immigrants for its economic growth. Do some Google search and you will figure out the median age of Canadians and why does Canada needs immigrants to come to Canada and be the driving force for its economy.

    Even after this if you can't see the incorrectness of your thoughts, I rest my case I don't wish to waste any more of my time on you.

    Joel Robinson

    In Reply to Annamala i 2 years ago

    Please go easy on the ‘.Mr’. Even the prime minister is addressed with his name- Justin Trudeau

    Satish Ghia

    2 years ago

    Very nice article. Presenting real picture. It needs courage to write such article.



    In Reply to Satish Ghia 2 years ago

    No it doesn't need courage. Its just facts she's presenting.

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    Hundreds of thousands of Americans drive for Uber. And the company is looking for many more. It runs ads on Facebook that say, for example: “Driving toward something? Make extra money when it works for you and get there faster.”
    Another touts: “Earn $1,100 in Nashville for your first 200 Trips. Limited time guarantee! Terms apply.”
    There’s just one catch: Many of those ads are not visible to women.
    A ProPublica review of Facebook ads found that many purchased by Drive with Uber, the company’s recruiting arm, targeted only men in more than a dozen cities across the U.S. Our survey of 91 Uber ads found just one targeting only women; three did not target a specific sex.
    They were all gathered as a part of our Facebook Political Ad Collector project, in which readers sign up to send us the ads they see in their News Feeds.
    The review found Uber to be among 15 employers in the past year who have advertised jobs on Facebook exclusively to one sex. Many of the ads seem to target in accordance with stereotypes. The Pennsylvania State Police, for example, boosted a post targeted to men with text saying: “Pennsylvania State Troopers earn a starting salary of $59,567 per year. Apply now.” A Michigan-based truck company took out ads targeting not just men, but men interested in college football. And a community health center in Idaho sought nurses and certified medical assistants — and limited its audience to women.
    The Supreme Court ruled in 1973 that it is illegal for an employer to take out job ads in newspapers with parameters such as: “Help wanted — men.”
    “The ads themselves are illegal,” Galen Sherwin, an ACLU lawyer, said. “It’s been established for five decades.”
    The ACLU, the Communications Workers of America and the firm Outten & Golden filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission on Tuesday about Facebook’s practices. The filing, which is the first step before filing a lawsuit, names 10 employers who had advertised jobs only to men. The complaint argues that Facebook itself has broken the law by publishing the ads.
    In a statement, Facebook spokesman Joe Osborne said: “There is no place for discrimination on Facebook; it’s strictly prohibited in our policies. We look forward to defending our practices once we have an opportunity to review the complaint.”
    The company has previously said that giving advertisers the ability to target employment ads by sex and age does not facilitate discrimination.
    In response to other suits, Facebook has argued that it is not liable for the content its users — in this case, advertisers — post on its platform. Continue Reading
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    Top Official at Memorial Sloan Kettering Resigns After Failing to Disclose Industry Ties
    Dr. José Baselga, the hospital's chief medical officer, stepped down days after a report by ProPublica and the New York Times that he failed to disclose millions of dollars in payments from the health care and drug industry in research articles. This story was co-published with The New York Times.
    Update, September 13, 2018: This story has been updated throughout.
    Update, September 14, 2018: On Friday afternoon, Dr. José Baselga resigned from the board of drugmaker Bristol-Meyers Squibb, which he served on since March.
    Dr. José Baselga, the chief medical officer of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, resigned on Thursday amid reports that he had failed to disclose millions of dollars in payments from health care companies in dozens of research articles.
    The revelations about Baselga’s disclosure lapses, reported by The New York Times and ProPublica last weekend, have rocked Memorial Sloan Kettering, one of the nation’s leading cancer centers, in recent days. Its top executives scrambled to contain the fallout, including urgent meetings of physician leaders and the executive committee of its board of directors.
    In his resignation letter released Thursday, Baselga, who also served as the physician-in-chief, said he feared that the matter would be a distraction from his role overseeing clinical care and that he had been “extremely proud” to work at Memorial Sloan Kettering.
    “It is my hope that this situation will inspire a doubling down on transparency in our field,” he said, adding that he hoped the medical community would work together to develop a more standardized system for reporting industry ties.
    In an email sent to the staff Thursday evening, Dr. Craig B. Thompson, the hospital’s chief executive, said that Baselga had made “numerous” contributions to Memorial Sloan Kettering, patients and cancer treatment. Dr.
    Lisa DeAngelis, the chairwoman of neurology, will take over as acting physician-in-chief until Baselga’s successor is hired.
    The resignation was effective immediately, and he will have no continuing role at the cancer center, although he will stay for two weeks to ease the transition, said Christine Hickey, a spokeswoman for the cancer center.
    Thompson echoed comments he made to the hospital staff on Sunday, saying that the cancer center had “robust programs” in place to manage employees’ relationships to outside companies, but that “we will remain diligent.”
    He added, “There will be continued discussion and review of these matters in the coming weeks.”
    Baselga, a prominent figure in the world of cancer research, omitted his financial ties to companies like the Swiss drugmaker Roche and several small biotech start-ups in prestigious medical publications like the New England Journal of Medicine and the Lancet. He also failed to disclose any company affiliations in articles he published in the journal Cancer Discovery, for which he serves as one of two editors in chief. Continue Reading
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