Emerging Need for Proper and Rigid Banking Regulation
In 1999, I wanted to transfer money to my friend in the US; it cost me dear and took seven days to reach. In 2020, it happened in just 24 hours for sending a gift to my daughter in Canada. Local remittance, telegraphic or mail transfer used to take no less than a day and a week, respectively. But today it all happens instantaneously. Technology has changed all. Digitisation helped many less literate people access banking services on their mobile. Banking is in their palm.
 
The cab driver to wayside worker holds an affordable smart phone and transacts his money transfers with ease. 
 
Suddenly, some of them found that their account balances moved from five digits to four digits and from three to two digits at the end of the year. They realised that the comfort came at a huge cost. The pleasure of this comfort in bank transactions is instantly gone when recognition of customer changed from person behind the counter to machine in front of him. 
 
The customer is damned. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) appointed customer service committees; directed the banks to conduct customer service meetings fortnightly; created internal Ombudsman in the Banks and RBI level to redress the grievances of customers. 
 
Machines have come to see the customers more than the persons manning the counters. Any grievance of the customer is responded to by the machine first with a fixed timeline. Again, at the fixed timeline, the response to the grievance also comes off whether resolved or not. At the bank counters and back offices where the businesses had to happen, there was greedy pursuit of third-party product sale.
 
The finance minister (FM)’s recent exhortation to banks to care for the customer and not for rating agencies was like music to the ears of citizens in this environment. Will the banks ignoring the instructions of the RBI to hold fortnightly meetings of customers at their branches care for this public call? 
 
RBI governor Shaktikanta Das recently mentioned that “despite the recent decline in impaired assets and a significant improvement in provisioning, profitability of the banking sector remains fragile.” 
 
Post liberalisation, public sector banks (PSBs) turned neither profitable nor social. They have been bleeding incessantly. Capital refurbed for more than 20 years at different levels to different banks with the hope they would revive! 
 
Indian banks in 2020, despite digital disruptions, are very much akin to the banks in the US and Europe in 2008-09 with a fraud ticket in 2019 of Rs1.13 trillion, credit growth despite all the oxygen pumped in by RBI, is at an all-time low of 6% going by the latest CRISIL report. 
 
Banks came to focus more on capital adequacy than responsible credit delivery. They became more inward looking than looking at matters that make good business sense.
 
Recent unorthodox long-term operations (LTOs) and cushioning cash reserve ratio (CRR) for credit to auto, housing, real estate and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) to inject liquidity is yet to result in credit flowing to the needy sectors. It is not so much liquidity as the risk aversion that needs tackling. 
 
Can we introspect? Banks’ embrace with technology landed them in somnambulance (sleep walk). Recruitment took a turn to lapping up tech-savvy youth. Post-2010, banks have noticed that there were no mentors. Most seniors happen to be of post-liberalised era where the value systems of banks were in transition. Persons whose commitment to customers is seen through technology window have all today become the top management. Knowledge of banking is less than that of technology.
 
Direction to the field executives also took a swift turn to more recovery than lending having been saddled with key risks arising from credit origination. Adding to such swifts is the transformation in the economy – a slant to digitisation with services sector seen as the panacea for growth because of its contribution to gross domestic product (GDP) hovering between 8% and 10%. 
 
Private capital started flowing into services sector more than the manufacturing or agriculture sectors because of high annual yields—a near 24% with very little lag. The politics of economics made wrong decisions in allowing loan waiver as a remedy for recovery in farm sector. Corporates were favoured the huge haircuts—whether with or without Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC)—no less than 60% and even stretching to 72% of the blocked debt. There emerged a scene of competition as it were, in loan waivers or write-off among the productive sectors.
 
Gigantic institutional frauds like those of Vijay Mallya, Nirav Modi, Punjab National Bank (PNB), Punjab & Maharashtra Co-operative Bank (PMC Bank), have put pressure on the regulator. 
Firefighting has become the focus instead of well-lubricated reforms. Financial sector reform became freewheeling in size as the panacea for taking banking to global acceptance. Bank mergers are yet to show up the projected results. Lessons of too-big-to-fail globally did not have impact on Indian policy-makers.
 
Credit origination risks were at the bottom of the low and sulking growth of banking. Capital adequacy norms of Basel were once the subject matter of discussion in any forum for almost a decade. After the deficient capital arising from inefficient banking has been buffeted by the government in PSBs that ceased to be the concern. 
 
RBI may appoint a committee to recommend ways in which banks can reduce the service costs in the context of increasing transaction volumes and systems established long back with only software costs adding up frequently. 
 
We seem to have reached a blind lane walking with closed eyes and deaf ears. Bad banking and good economy can never travel together. The $5 trillion economy prospect cannot afford the luxury of leisure in tackling this current imbroglio in financial sector. 
 
Customers are waiting for the benefit of technological revolution to result in better experience, risk management and higher return to shareholder. But the corona virus hit globe defies technology. 
 
RBI has been looking at modifications to the supervisory framework—both onsite and offsite. In the context of rising frauds aided by systems, it is worthwhile for the regulator reintroducing branch inspections on one side and more frequent system and forensic audits on the other.
 
The clarion call is for strong regulation, effective and continuous monitoring and supervision of the RBI that once saved the Indian banking system from the global financial turmoil in 2007, notwithstanding the risks the banking system carried due to the inter-linkages between institutions and markets both in India and abroad. 
 
(The author is an economist and risk management specialist. The views expressed are personal.) 
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    COMMENTS

    samyukta.babu

    4 weeks ago

    Sir, what action should be taken for wrong decisions by RBI governor? Simply asking for resignation is not going to help. By shouting digital, digital banks have only absolved blame for digital disasters and abdicated their responsibility. We are being shown only one side of the digital architectural marvel - but what about the pathetic service rendered in banks, delayed clearings, unnecessary charges, machines not working, excuses by bank employees to shirk work...There is no solution in site. We are only painting a rosy picture of the marvels of digital banking - conveniently forgetting that the other side of digital is far from rosy. I am a customer of State Bank of India - the passbook updating machine is under repair for 6 months now, the bank clerks conveniently say - " Printer is not working, server is down " etc. One of the major downsides of digital banking is the spam messages sent by bank in hordes. The relevance of most of these messages is lost on me. Look at the way a SBI clerk behaves towards customers and you will realize that banks just don't know what customer service is - forget about customer etiquette!

    In all these cries of digital digital, banks have successfully driven out customers from branches and are now facing the daunting prospect of "how to connect with customers?" to sell other banking products.

    I request Money Life to carry a regular column where customers can share their banking woes so that RBI can be made aware of the hardships that customers are put through. It is impossible to withdraw money from SBI. If you use another branch (other than home branch) for depositing cheques, SBI clerks refuse to do that saying that we have to go to the home branch - then why did SBI have this concept of core banking?

    FM is talking of consolidation of banks - but I would request her to do something to instill some sense of customer value in SBI. RBI also needs to be pulled up in case they are unable to resolve issues.

    One innocent question to Mr Yerram - Do any RBI officials ever conduct a surprise inspection of banks - or is everything only on paper?

    saioamshyd

    1 month ago

    https://www.moneylife.in/article/emerging-need-for-proper-and-rigid-banking-regulation/59590.html
    1. Ultimately, PSB employees at large are blamed making their hard work a thankless job.
    2. 1. The frauds/scams in Indian Banking Industry are enormous to gulp the entire
    GOI’s mobilized funds. Most of the scams are created at apex level PSBs/SBI/PRIVATE BANKS involving Banks-Boards, CMDs/CEOs/EDs & THE FUGITIVES + RULING POLITICIANS.
    REMEDY: REVAMP PSB BOARDS WITH HONEST NON-POLITICAL VISIONARIES.
    3. 2. The very system of promotions is fraught with several lacunae in promotions from Scale-VII [GMs-cadre] to EDs/CMDs/CEOs. Those GMs, who can move levers powers with duds of Adhocism in PMO/UFM have been partners. The ruling politicians & prospective fugitives know how to grease the palms of decision-makers in PMO & UFM.
    REMEDY: REPLACE THE CORRUPT Y COMPETENT VISIONARIES.
    4. INDIAN BANKS’ ASSOCIATION-IBA, a voluntary organization [1946] possesses extra-constitutional power with ‘no registration under any Indian law’ wields enormous power, since IBA has no accountability to anyone for amounts @Rs.250 crores mobilized annually [1946-2019] from 243 members. No audit & no published balance sheets. IBA helps & enables prospective promotees in Banks to influence decision-makers in power corridors by offering 3Ws-WINE, WOMAN & WEALTH.
    REMEDY: JUST GET IBA REGISTERED & BRING ALL ITS ACCOUNTS UNDER THE PURVIEW OF CAG.
    5. The collaborators are ticking masters of RBI’s Audit Department + statutory auditors. I don’t know what the duds of Adhocism in PMO/UFM & Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman has in their minds to arrest money flight outside the Indian borders.
    6. REMEDY: REPLACE THE DUDS BY HONEST VISIONARIES, WHO ARE APLENTY IN INDIA.
    7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Si8U02s8cQ.
    8. SATYAMAEVA JAYATHE!!!

    muralidhard2002

    1 month ago

    Sir, you meant to say that The Security Guard is sleeping?

    kapilguptajpr

    1 month ago

    Could not understand what you are trying to communicate. The article leads nowhere.

    REPLY

    yerramr

    In Reply to kapilguptajpr 1 month ago

    RBI should restore branch inspections that were set aside for the last nearly 20 years. Second, systems and forensic audit should be mandated annually to improve the regulatory rigor in the current environment. These are made out in the article.

    MCA Mandates Disclosure of Benami Transactions, Whistle-blower Complaints in Auditor's Report
    The ministry of corporate affairs (MCA) has mandated companies to disclose information about benami transactions, defaults in tax payment or loan, any fraud committed by the company and whistle-blower complaints in the auditor's report.
     
    The Companies (Auditor's Report) Order, 2020, also enhances scope of issued to be contained in auditor's report, including proceedings initiated or pending, if any, against the company under the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act.
     
    The auditor's report should disclose information on sanction to the company in respect of working capital limits in excess of Rs5 crore, goods and sales tax (GST) dues payment and cash losses, unrecorded transactions surrendered or accepted in income tax assessments, and declaration of company as wilful defaulter by any lender.
     
    The order from MCA also mandates the company to disclose if the auditor has considered whistleblower complaints, if any, received during the year.
     
    Sometimes, there are instances where the statutory auditor of the company resigns and a new auditors need to be appointed. The MCA order asks the company to make disclose information about resignation of statutory auditor and whether the present auditor has taken into consideration the issues, objections or concerns raised by the outgoing auditors.
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    COMMENTS

    rajoluramam

    1 month ago

    I am afraid whether any fraudster bothers about MCA instructions. Any thief agrees about his thefts and procedure he followed. If police also cooperates with the thief, no body can catch him. Same this is happening with these fraudulent companies. Auditors cooperate, registrar of companies cooperate, Bank officials cooperate and also politicians help these companies. When all sorts of frauds are going on in ILFS and DHFL etc are going on since so many years, no body could find out. Even during this period, these companies collected thousands of crores from the innocent depositors. It is futile exercise asking these companies to reveal their frauds. These fraudulent companies with out making repayments to FD holders are doing their business as usual and enjoying life. Example:
    ELDER PHARMA SINCE 2014, though their selling products in the market, it had not paid matured FDs. No body gives latest information.

    SEBI orders Vayaa Builder to repay illegally-collected funds
    The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) on Tuesday directed Vayaa Builder and Developers, and its directors Yogendra Bisay and Jitendra Bisay to cease their unregistered Collective Investment Scheme (CIS) and refund the money garnered through the scheme.
     
    The company had raised over Rs 4 crore under the scheme of allotment of lands, developing colony and plots.
     
    "VBDP and its directors, viz. Yogendra Bisay and Jitendra Bisay shall wind up its existing CIS and refund the contributions or payments collected from order in the matter of Vayaa Builder and Developers Pvt. Ltd. investors under the schemes with returns due to the investors within a period of three months from the date of this order," the SEBI order said.
     
    "Upon completion of the refund as directed above, within a further period of fifteen days, the Noticees shall submit a winding up and repayment report to SEBI in the format provided under regulation 73 of the CIS Regulations."
     
    It added that the refund and interest payment to the investors shall be effected only through bank demand draft or 'pay order', both of which shall be crossed as 'non-transferable' or through internet banking channels such as NEFT or RTGS, with appropriate audit trail.
     
    Referring to its show cause notice dated November 9, 2018 to the company and the directors, the SEBI order on Tuesday said: "The interim order also noted that the maximum amount of money mobilisation has taken place in the FY 2013-14 which amounted to Rs 4,02,08,822 under the 'scheme' of allotment of lands/developing colony/plots and that it prima facie it appeared that the company had raised an amount of at least Rs 4,02,08,822 under the said 'Scheme'."
     
    SEBI further said that if the noticee -- the company and its two directors -- fail to comply with the directions, then the regulator shall initiate recovery proceeding against them. 
     
    Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.
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