Doing PhD in India: Think Thrice!
Sumithramma (not her real name) is in her late 40s. It has been nine years since she enrolled for a doctoral programme and she is almost on the verge of getting disqualified from the course. She was working with a guide who was a senior faculty member in a well-known state university in south India. “I did not make proper referrals before agreeing to be her student,” rues Sumithra. She recalls with horror the amount of mental torture this lady gave her. “It is often said that women are women’s biggest enemies. It proved to be true in my case.  In state universities you don’t have much of a choice when it comes to a doctoral guide.” Sumithra suffered such mental agony and depression in the last few years that her family suggested that she abandon the course, instead of allowing her health to get affected. 
 
Luckily, for Sumithra, she diverted her mind to spirituality and has now finished writing the thesis. “I have run every errand possible for my guide. Shadow-writing books and research papers for her; booking tickets for her family vacation; carrying home-cooked food for her; visiting banks and post offices…” Sumithra stops for a while and then she says “I would not recommend that anyone does a PhD, at least not in India. It is not worth the effort, unless you are lucky to manage a job in a government institution.”
 
If you do a PhD in India, the guide should be someone who should lead you towards the path to completion. Most guides lead their doctoral students into a rabbit hole. Out of the total number of enrolments in a doctoral course, only 8%-10% of the scholars manage to complete the programme. Guides play no small role in this. The moment a student’s doctoral degree becomes dependent on a guide, ego intervenes. In state-run universities, the torture is in the form of asking scholars to run a number of personal errands for the guide. In private universities, the fees are much higher; but the torture manifests in a different form. Guides end up asking scholars to do lot of unnecessary stuff delaying the completion of the degree by two to three years. Then, there are universities that have made a mockery of the doctoral programme by (literally) selling the degrees. Imagine scholars completing the doctoral degree in 18 months or 36 months. 
 
Unless the scholar has a passion for research and unless the guide has the mental aptitude to guide the scholar, the entire experience of working for a doctoral degree faces numerous challenges. Many educational institutions do insist on a doctoral degree while recruiting faculty but fail to estimate the rigour with which the research has been pursued. Acquiring a degree and acquiring knowledge are not the same. This is the reason why the corporate world has an aversion for doctoral students. The main component of a doctoral dissertation is the research question and identification of research gap. Gap identification ideally takes anywhere between two to three years and is the result of an exhaustive review of existing literature. Most students manipulate the process by reading only the abstract and conclusion of research papers, to cut short the time. This ends up short-circuiting the process of knowledge acquisition.
 
Research is about offering something new—not offering old wine in a new bottle. The Western world is years ahead of us in terms of path-breaking research. In India, despite having skilled people, we end up succumbing to the lure of selecting patently absurd topics for research. Be it marketing, human resources or information technology or finance, the area of research is a fecund ground for exploring areas that have not been hitherto explored for their research potential. But this needs one to arrive at the precise statement of the problem based on the identification of the research gap.
 
Private universities in cities like Pune, Chennai and Bengaluru have been luring software geeks to pursue a doctoral degree. Some of these universities have amassed huge sums of money in the form of fees. While the total cost of pursuing a doctoral degree in a state university is somewhere between Rs2 lakh and Rs3 lakh (excluding the ‘other’ costs of the course), private universities charge anywhere between Rs5 lakh and Rs7 lakh. Return on investment? Your guess is as good as mine. For young doctoral graduates, the starting salary in an educational institution varies from Rs25,000-Rs40,000—the salary an MBA from a middle-rung business school draws. Strangely, none of the Indian universities seems to have a feedback mechanism for evaluating the capabilities of their doctoral programme guides. As most students drop out even before the course work is complete, universities end up with loads of cash. 
 
One of the doctoral research guides says, “I request scholars not to have huge expectations from the degree. The lesser your expectations, the lesser is the stress that you will subject yourself to. On most occasions, a doctoral degree produces a halo effect that is temporal in nature.” Unless the individual pursues his passion for research, the doctoral degree becomes a full stop. 
 
After acquiring a doctoral degree, individuals generally join educational institutions. Very few join industry. Some become entrepreneurs, if they have some financial backing. Some pursue a post-doctoral fellowship abroad. Others keep their interest in research alive by publishing papers in renowned, peer-reviewed journals and guiding young doctoral scholars.
 
Through this column, I make a humble appeal to all doctoral guides to support the deserving scholar in every way possible. Leave your egos aside. Doctoral scholars, who shirk work and have joined the course only for its (so-called) prestige value, do not deserve any mercy or empathy. But doctoral scholars passionate about research and those who are keen to make significant research contributions deserve empathy, attention and kindness. 
 
Scholars need a reasonable level of emotional intelligence to deal with the doctoral guide and committee members. They must develop inter-personal skills. If there is a problem, postpone thinking about it and then revisit the problem. Hours of reading in solitude and taking down notes creates a lot of pressure. So, scholars need breaks in between. A good effort in research entails reading anywhere between 250-350 research papers—though the number may vary depending on the topic. Scholars need to develop highest levels of patience while skimming the literature, to identify the research gap.
 
Research is not just about usage of statistical tools. Tools exist to validate your study so that your research outcomes are aligned with the objectives. Modern tools, like structural equation modelling, are useful to validate the conceptual model. 
 
But age-old tools, like multiple regression, factor analysis, discriminant analysis and Chi-square are no less relevant. Most statistical software programs are available for a free trial for three-months. Most guides insist on using a modern tool without realising that the tool must be relevant for the research in question. 
 
Some scholars have the tendency to outsource the statistical part to statisticians, but that is a grave mistake on their part. Every scholar should devote considerable time to learn new tools to support his/her research effort. Doctoral guides must avoid playing to the gallery. Their style must be an ideal blend of firmness and accommodativeness. 
 
This is, of course, easier said than done. Some institutions invite scholars to take part in doctoral consortiums. But a word of caution is necessary here. Ideas can easily get stolen in these so-called consortiums/ conferences. Additionally, few institutes organise such consortiums to earn money and get credits from statutory/ regulatory bodies. The scholar has to be careful not to share his research agenda with anyone outside the circle of influence. 
 
Unless an individual is ready to face all these challenges while pursuing a doctoral degree, it is advisable that he/she stays away from such a pursuit. There are those with a doctoral degree who are denied a promotion and languish in the same role for years together. I once asked an HR manager from Accenture whether she would recruit PhDs and there was a deafening silence from her end. 
 
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    COMMENTS

    Amit Pandya

    2 months ago

    Yes, your article is true. I know many people who are doing there PhD and are facing harassment. And they have also to do their Guides personal work. I feel that in total every Education Institute has become a profit mongering mafia which is the reason mostly highly talented people leave the country. Those who are sitting in the colleges and universities are even not able to do the job of a clerk in the Corporate Sector. It's not only about PhD when I was doing my graduation, we have a 30 mark internal system which is in the hands of the Professor, so one of my madams had once told me to go to the ticket centre to book two tickets for her, I had clearly told her that it is not my work to do and don't feel that I will do it for that 30 marks, this degree is just a piece of paper of me, but everyone cannot do that, so once you fall for such people, you will never be able to come out.

    sudipt Maitra

    1 year ago

    The quality of Ph.D discourse in management from state universities(govt. b-schools) 'awarded' dissertation topics and their enclosed texts are not worthy of reading, let alone referencing. The govt. has done its bit of 'shoveling the shit upwards' by asking for Ph.D degree as a mandatory requirement for teaching management in universities. Aspirants of all hues have sought to gain a Ph.D degree to be eligible for a teaching job. Courtesy this policy, compounded by reservation policy, the teacher of management courses in most state run management institutes are a nomenclature in themselves...completely nonsynchronous with corporate requirement of management regimen. End result is that we have ever increasing batches of students spewing out of these institutes with little or dated inputs of management theories and practice, Time the government starts to think on establishing a professional body of management which would conduct examination of standing/award degrees( preferably after post graduation) for absorption into the business/corporate world like the Chartered Accountant/Company Secretary

    hareesh

    2 years ago

    Well written article and it's a long due to be appeared in magazines such as MoneyLife and other main stream news about the plight most of the research scholars in India(PhD & MS).
    First of all thanks for bringing this article and get the people know what's behind curtains of these so-called research groups in India.
    All the events narrated by the author are no exaggeration and are the true stories across the Pan-Indian universities. I was worst victim in the same scenario in one of best IIxx in India.
    Just replace the name in the article and story is more or like same as Mine. After much ordeal and going through some of the toughest entrance tests(GATE), in-house entrance test and interviews,
    gone to IIxx to do my MS ( Master of Science) after by BTech [ Success Ratio is almost 1:100 in this process]. My torture started with in few weeks and I had Two guides but none seem to give any direction to my Research and I too had a little idea of what I am going to in vast field of Semi-Conductors.
    In almost all the research meetings, what I get is the worst abuse of words which alone is sufficient for mental and emotional breakdown. Threats like 'We will send you' are normal phrases.
    Yeah it is true that they sent some of my colleagues in a similar manner - Just take them to HOD office and send them. No process is there to listen to the problems of these research scholars even if it there, they are not effective.
    At last I found some helping hands in Lab-supervisor who happened to be a electronic-hobbyist and able to finish my Thesis. All it took me ~ 4 years to finish my MS. There is not a single MS or PhD in my entire stay that haven't gone through their these toubles in form or other.
    I could able to produce 6 Journal/conference papers and my project done attracted huge funds from government Research agencies such as DST. The memories still haunting me though it is around 10 years.
    Truly think hundred times (Not just Thrice)before joining any of the research programs in Indian universities.

    REPLY

    Yogeshwar More

    In Reply to hareesh 2 years ago

    our analysis is alsoappropriate...but these must be spread to society, media and MHRD and goverment decisive authorities...let us come forward

    Mentes

    2 years ago

    Well written article. But there is a bigger problem the author left to say is the sexual torture by guides.

    REPLY

    Nitin Verma

    In Reply to Mentes 1 year ago

    Even female guides can be blood suckers. I know one who hates male scholars and never let them complete their doctoral work. The higher education industry is based on unjust and incapable professors who take delight in making lives of scholars hell.

    Unnao HIV nightmare: When will India ditch the callousness?
    The recent disclosure of at least 46 people becoming infected with HIV in the Unnao tehsil of Uttar Pradesh (UP), allegedly after a quack used contaminated syringes to administer injections, has triggered shock-waves in medical circles and sent the government into the knee-jerk mode.
     
    HIV happens to get larger public attention than the more than 20 other infections that are transmitted through unhygienic syringes or needles, and some of them are highly transmissible compared to HIV. For instance, hepatitis C Virus-HCV is 10 times and hepatitis B Virus – HBV is 100 times more transmissible than HIV. Nevertheless, a thorough investigation is needed in this episode involving different agencies engaged in health at the Centre and state levels and professional organisations such as the AIDS Society of India (ASI). There have been instances of quacks being involved in organ trade, abortions, surgeries, using spurious medicines and making false claims.
     
    Even though HIV infections are at present relatively low in Uttar Pradesh, the recent data released by the National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) reveals that HIV incidence (new infection rates) are the highest in UP, Bihar, Rajasthan and Gujarat, whereas the erstwhile high HIV prone states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have taken a backseat! Unnao-like incidents are not only shocking but a formidable blot on the reputation of India’s National AIDS Control Programme (NACP).
     
    By far the least possibility of HIV infection in India has been through hospital practices and blood transfusion modes of transmissions and both depend solely upon the efficiency of the national programmes. Efficiency of HIV prevention through sexual transmission mainly depends on individuals and the government cannot dictate any of what happens in bed-rooms!
     
    People’s Health Organisation (India) (PHO), which has been championing the fight against AIDS since 1985 and has fought legal battles for blood and hospital safety since 1989 single-handedly, is concerned with the casual approach shown by official agencies and the much-touted National Health Mission. The easiest factor in HIV prevention and control, namely,   blood safety, took more than 12 years to implement in India after the first HIV infections were detected and 9 years after PHO filed public interest litigation (PIL) in the Bombay High Court in 1989, when even the term ‘PIL’ was non-existent in legal jargon! Blood safety has contributed significantly to HIV prevention. HIV transmission through blood among the total HIV cases in India is down to less than 2% now, from 10% before 1998. State AIDS Control Societies (SACs) are usually saddled with stock-outs of medicines and testing kits at the anti-retroviral treatment (ART) centres, shortage of and dis-interested ART officers. Project directors of SACs often hold dual charges with a much reduced focus on SACs.
     
    The Unnao episode reminds us of an incident of accidental HIV infection contracted by 13 German nationals in October 1985  which resulted in the German health minister’s resignation. In France, there was two months’ delay by the health ministry in starting HIV tests in blood banks, awaiting the parliament’s assent, after the tests were commercially available in France. Another similar incident in France in July 1985 resulted in the prosecution of the then French health minister later in 1999, hitting international headlines, where the commercialization of HIV tests was delayed by two months after they were found successful in laboratory research. However a massive incident of this nature amounting to genocide may be ignored, because it pertains to India, speaking volumes on the double standards of our policy makers and planners. 
     
     
    Modus Operandi:
    Injections may not only bring a variety of infections through contaminated needles/syringes but are also often responsible for causing anti-microbial resistance, as most practitioners use inadequate doses of antibiotics. There is a huge buffer margin between the actual buying rate and the minimum retail price (MRP) of injections.  Quacks as well as licensed medical practitioners work on the dictum: ‘the pricks work better than the pills' and ‘pricks bring more money than pills.’  They also know how to play on people’s psyche and fleece them, true to the maxim ‘Mareez paisa deta hai, ya to khat pe ya fir murda-ghat pe’ (People pay: if not on the hospital bed, then on the funeral pyre). Patients feel harassed and get commercially exploited, in addition to exposing themselves or others to several injection or transfusion-transmitted infections, most of which are not screened before transfusion. In fact, the hepatitis B negative people should receive hepatitis B vaccines; which are inexpensive and even our VVIPs which have recently succumbed to HBV infection (like the Union minister Vilasrao Deshmukh). Those who have gone through liver transplants as a consequence of HBV infection could have been spared and saved. 
       
    The same is true of blood transfusions. Nearly 40% of blood is used for unwanted / un-indicated single-bottle transfusions. Hence in the blood business there was a lot of abuse of blood. After PHO’s PIL in 1989, the Maharashtra government had shut down several private blood banks in Mumbai and had suspended the manufacture of all blood products in India when 70% of them were found to be HIV tainted due to contamination in the manufacturing processes. The blood sellers are also potential organ (kidney, eye, skin etc.) sellers. Major kidney trade between India, the Middle East and Europe, with the fullest involvement of medical establishments, were also exposed by PHO. In 1998, the Supreme Court of India had passed an order to ensure blood safety that resulted in operation clean-up of the blood banks by NACO by equipping the centres and training the staff. There are nearly 22 blood borne infections that are transmitted through contaminated blood, of which only 5 are screened routinely – HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis and malaria. And even after knowing the hepatitis B status, people are not told to be vaccinated against HBV, the cost of which is very low, less than Rs100/-. ASI offers to send a high-level experts delegation to brief the UP government officials and experts on the ground, on boosting safe injection practices, blood safety, HIV programmes so that UP can progress towards the National Health Policy (NHP) targets of the Union government as well as its UP state health policy.
     
     
    ASI recommendations on injection safety: With the longest experience in HIV/AIDS in India and adequate understanding on the demand for injection practices and knowing fully the limitations, the ASI devised the following multi-pronged strategy for injection safety to halt the spread of HIV and other blood-borne infections:
     
    a) Appeal to doctors and hospitals: To use injections only when they must, avoid injections where oral medications or local applications can help, to use intravenous fluids (saline/ glucose) judiciously - only when it is really indicated, always use disposable syringes/needles, use burners and needle cutters to destroy the used needles and dispose of syringes properly as they are a bio-hazard. Avoid commercialisation of injections and follow the highest standards of medical ethics.
     
    b) Appeal to the government: To strictly ban the quacks, making quackery a severely punishable crime; to make injection/needle safety as a pre-requisite for every clinic or hospital; to provide guidelines and publicity material to blood banks, clinics, and hospitals on injection safety and universal precautions; to urgently review and survey Unnao like instances and to rehabilitate victims.
     
    c) Appeal to the people: To increase habits on voluntarily declining suggestions for injections/ IV fluids and instead use oral, local applications, and suppositories; to tactfully question doctors' prescription for Injections and IV fluids or blood transfusions - for their own safety. Often patients insist on injections and this habit should be discarded.
     
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    COMMENTS

    Vijay Dadoo

    2 years ago

    Promote Mohalla clinics with the help of Retired Doctors, ANMs, Compounders, Nurses and other Medicos. Only then we shall be able to do away with quacks. I have made my humble suggestion in this regard to Central Minister for Health and Family welfarte, as also to Chief Ministers of most of the states.

    Facebook faces fine for allegedly violating Seattle's ad transparency law
    Facebook is facing hefty fine after the city of Seattle, in Washington, accused the social media giant of violating its political ad transparency law.
     
    According to the claims, Facebook violated the state's 1977 campaign finance law, which states that those who accept advertising dollars from political campaigns be transparent with the public about the "exact nature and extent of the advertising services". 
     
    News portal Fast Company reported that if Facebook is found at fault, it could be liable for $5,000 per violation.
     
    Under state law, advertisers who provide political advertising during a campaign must make available the names and addresses of the people it accepted the ads from, the exact nature and extent of the advertising and the "consideration and the manner of paying". 
     
    "Though the law was initially enacted in 1977, it is interpreted to apply to all forms of advertisements, including print, television, radio and Internet," the report pointed out.
     
    In December, a Seattle newspaper, The Stranger, requested 2017 state election ad data from Facebook.
     
    On failure to get a satisfactory response, Wayne Barnett, Executive Director of the Seattle Ethics and Elections Commission, sent Facebook a letter giving the company until January 2 to comply with the request.
     
    At that time, Facebook requested a 30-day extension, which was granted.
     
    Last Friday, the social media giant served a two-page spreadsheet which Barnett said fell short of providing the information required by law. 
     
    The document lists candidate names, their Facebook page names, Facebook page addresses, total spend, service provided and manner of payment. 
     
    "The problem is that a lot of the information Facebook provided seems limited and it does not match with the disclosure filings from the candidates themselves," the report said.
     
    The Stranger claimed that the possible reason for the mismatched numbers was that many of those Facebook ads were purchased through third parties, like political consultants, and not directly through the candidates' own Facebook pages.
     
    Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.
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