Caloric Restriction May Delay Ageing, Finds Study
Who would not want to delay the onset of age-related diseases and live longer? As it turns out, the secret to a longer life is actually quite simple: just consume less food and restrict the amount of calories. 
 
This is the conclusion of a new study by scientists from the US and China that provides the most detailed report, to date, of the cellular effects of a calorie-restricted diet in rats. While the benefits of caloric restriction have been long known, these new results show how this restriction can protect against ageing in cellular pathways. The results of the study have been published in the scientific journal Cell.
 
"We already knew that calorie restriction increases life span, but now we've shown all the changes that occur at a single-cell level to cause that," explained Prof Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, a senior author of the new paper and professor at Salk Institute’s gene expression laboratory. "This gives us targets that we may eventually be able to act on with drugs to treat aging in humans."
 
Statistically, ageing is the highest risk factor for many human diseases, including cancer, dementia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Various studies have shown caloric restriction in animal models to be one of the most effective interventions against these age-related diseases. Although researchers know that individual cells undergo many changes as an organism ages, they have not known how caloric restriction might influence these changes. 
 
For the new study, Prof Belmonte and his collaborators—alumni from Salk lab, who are now professors running their own research programmes in China—compared rats that ate 30% fewer calories, with rats on normal diets. The animals’ diets were controlled from age 18 months through 27 months. This would roughly be equivalent to a human following a calorie-restricted diet from the age 50 years through 70.
 
At the start and the conclusion of the diet, Prof Belmonte’s team isolated and analysed a total of 168,703 cells from 40 cell types in 56 rats. These cells were taken from fat tissues, liver, kidney, aorta, skin, bone marrow, brain and muscle. In each isolated cell, the researchers used single cell genetic-sequencing technology to measure the activity level of genes. They also considered the overall composition of cell types within any given tissue and then compared old and young mice on each diet.  
 
Many of the changes that occurred as rats on the normal diet grew older did not occur in rats on a restricted diet. Even in old age, many of the tissues and cells of animals on the diet closely resembled those of young rats. Overall, 57% of the age-related changes in cell composition seen in the tissues of rats on a normal diet were not present in rats on the calorie-restricted diet. 
 
"This approach not only told us the effect of calorie restriction on these cell types, but also provided the most complete and detailed study of what happens at a single-cell level during aging," said corresponding author Prof Guang-Hui Liu, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
 
The researchers found that some of the cells and genes most affected by the diet were related to immunity, inflammation and lipid metabolism. The number of immune cells in nearly every tissue studied dramatically increased as control rats aged; however, it was not affected by age in rats with restricted calories. In brown adipose tissue—a type of fat tissue—a calorie-restricted diet reverted the expression levels of many anti-inflammatory genes to those seen in young animals.
 
"The primary discovery in the current study is that the increase in the inflammatory response during aging could be systematically repressed by caloric restriction," said corresponding author Prof Jing Qu, from the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
 
"People say that 'you are what you eat,' and we're finding that to be true in lots of ways," says Prof Concepcion Rodriguez Esteban, another of the research paper's authors and a staff researcher at Salk Institute. "The state of your cells as you age clearly depends on your interactions with your environment, which includes what and how much you eat."
 
The team is now trying to utilise this information in an effort to discover ageing drug targets and implement strategies towards increasing life and health span.
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    Ramesh Popat

    4 weeks ago

    good beginning! some useful hints!

    COVID-19: The Cure Is Worse than the Ailment
    With the corona pandemic (COVID-19) spreading like wildfire in Mumbai, many patients are finding it difficult to get a bed in the hospital. Even those few who are lucky enough to get a bed, are fed up with the apathy and inhuman treatment by hospitals despite slapping hefty charges. 
     
    Here is a translation from Marathi to English, first-person account of Kiran Karalkar from Agripada in Mumbai, who has been serving as a health worker for many years at the Parel-based Nana Palkar Smruti Samiti, which runs shelter-homes for poor patients who come to Mumbai for medical treatment.
     
    I have been working as social worker and providing health-care services to patients at the Nana Palkar Smruti Samiti in Parel, Mumbai.
     
    On 1 May 2020, I felt a little feverish. I took a tablet and felt somewhat better, but the fever wouldn’t go away for next few days. So, on 7th May, I went to the KEM Hospital in Parel and did my COVID-19 test. The next day, my report came positive. 
     
    I then called up several hospitals for getting admitted, but was told that there was a waiting list. Then I decided to go to Nair Hospital, which is close to my house and I am known there as being active in organising blood donations camps. I was admitted there on 8th May at around 9.30pm without any hassles. 
     
    However, my real struggle began after the admission. I realised that there wasn’t even a clean bedsheet available. But being a health worker, I thought, I should sympathise with my co-professionals and cooperate with them, and hence I took possession of my bed without making a fuss.
     
    A doctor visited me and after my check-up, instructed the nurse about my medicines. They also put me on the drip. However, the apparatus was not fixed properly: as I went to the toilet, the needle came out and I started bleeding. I was given loose cotton and was told to use it to stop the bleeding, which I could manage after several unsuccessful attempts.
    But what happened next is something I can never forget in my life. 
     
    The patient lying next to me, who had been on dialysis succumbed to corona. His dead body lay on the same bed for several hours, and the hospital workers did not even draw the curtain over the corpse, leave alone moving it away. I was lonely, with no one to even speak with. The dead body of a person who had died of the same ailment that had afflicted me, was lying for several hours in front of my bed. I could not get rid of its vision, even with my eyes closed, and I had no idea for how long the body would remain there on that bed. With every passing moment I felt more and more sick, physically and mentally.  
     
    A dead body isn’t something I was unfamiliar with. During the 32 years of my social service, I have seen many dead bodies and have even helped perform the last rites for some. And yet, looking at a dead body for several hours created an unprecedented anxiety in me. This is worse than one’s own death, I thought with great sadness.
     
    As the body was taken away, orders were suddenly issued for me to vacate my bed and shift to the one which had had the dead body on it.  
     
    The reason given by the lady doctor, who attended on me, was that since I would need oxygen and this facility was available on that bed, I must shift there. Actually, even my bed had the facility for such an attachment. However, I kept my cool and moved over to the other bed.
     
    That was my worst night at the hospital. I was exhausted mentally and was deteriorating physically. Overstressed and frightened, I couldn’t sleep a wink that night. Even today, I have no words to express the horror I went through that night. 
     
    I spoke on phone with my nephew Tanmay Karalkar, and told him of the mental stress I was going through. My family then decided to shift me to the Global Hospital in Parel. However, till today I have not received my test report for the swab taken on 10th May. 
     
    On the 13th May, I was shifted to Global Hospital in Parel around 9.30pm. The hospital staff was reassuring and my family and I thought our worries were at last over.
     
    As per the hospital protocol, they even took away my slippers along with my clothes and said that the hospital would provide me with replacements.  They also took away my mobile and I was not allowed to contact anyone for the next three days. During these three day, I received neither any slipper nor even toothpaste. I remained on my bed helplessly, following all instructions. 
     
    After three days, they gave me my mobile back. I immediately called Krushna Mahadik, who is the manager of Nana Palkar Samiti and requested him to provide me with toothpaste, toothbrush and towel. After much effort, these items finally reached me and for the first time in four days, I could brush my teeth and wash my face, which somewhat improved my bedraggled and stinking state.
     
    And then Global Hospital started revealing its true colours. From day one, there was no timetable for food, which anyway was of poor quality. On enquiry we were told that food would be provided as and when it became available. 
     
    There were instructions for providing hot tea to corona patients, but we never saw any of it. Anytime during the day, someone would bring tea cups and place them on the table without even bothering to inform the patients. 
     
    As per my information, each patient is charged for the kits that are used for his or her treatment. But here, they were not even changing their hand-gloves. The staff used to administer medicines to all patients in the ward without changing gloves. Overall, there was dearth of even basic minimum service, not to talk of quality.
     
    We used to get a change of clothes after two days and once they even gave me a pillow cover to use as a towel! 
     
    I had no cough, but still, they performed three chest x-rays on me, for reasons beyond my understanding or knowledge.
     
    The patient next to me was Satish Kokamkar from Mulund, who was also a staff member of the hospital. He would often tell the staff to change their gloves. In fact, he even had an argument with a health worker who refused to do so. 
     
    Added to this misery, my swab test report was still not handed over to me. I got the feeling that the hospital does not share the findings of tests with anyone until their treatment package is finalised.  
     
    On 22nd May, I was told that my test report was negative and that they were planning to discharge me the next day at an unspecified hour. 
     
    That night I slept peacefully in the belief that finally the ordeal is coming to an end. The belief was erroneous, as I learnt the next day, when a nurse came and told me that she needed to take my swab for a test. 
     
    Another swab test? Why, when my report is negative, I almost yelled. 
     
    She said she was acting under orders.  I then asked her for the name of the doctor who had asked for this new test or the name of the director. I told her to call them immediately, or else I would create a scene. 
     
    After this, I was told that I would be discharged from the hospital in the afternoon. 
     
    Then I was told to go to the emergency department in the basement for getting medicines, after completing the discharge procedures. I stood in the queue but they did not give me any medicines.
     
    I returned home after paying a bill close to Rs4.10 lakh. 
     
    I am aware that many have suffered more than me. But I am sharing my experiences to alert those who have the misfortune of contracting the disease in these difficult times.
     
    Corona has been a windfall for many in the medical field and hospitals are happy to make hay while the sun shines. The patients, devastated physically and mentally, are being royally plundered of their hard-earned savings without even getting proper treatment in return.
     
    I would earnestly request readers to give every possible support to everyone who is tested positive for corona and his/her family, by keeping a keen eye on such unprofessional and unethical conduct within the medical field. 
     
    (Translated by Yogesh Sapkale/Shubha Khandekar)
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    COMMENTS

    tillan2k

    2 weeks ago

    predatory animals are redy to sponge poor patients it can not happenwithout connivance of authorities.. media may project virtual reality but reality is known wide spread..voters may talk by vote

    ssk.pab

    4 weeks ago

    SEND THIS NOTE TO CM.

    tillan2k

    4 weeks ago

    years of neglect of family planning due to backlash now back of public is being lashed by coRONA with lot of RONA... Privatising of health c are and education to empower the crony rich... imperial anarchic democracy only consideration caste and language.. now the sins are coming to retribute

    suneel

    4 weeks ago

    Harrowing state of affairs. Hope we get clarification from officials. Regards to the lady for bring it to everyones attention.

    vaibhavdhoka

    4 weeks ago

    For all the MEDICAL LOOT as abovementioned began in the end of last century.It started with entry of corporates in the field of medicare.For corporates preamble is profits.The corporate medicare centres function merely for earning,here patient is taken as earning source.The doctor patient bonding started receding and only relation was related to earning source.In above case the bill must be querried for every item charged.Public also come on backfoot as many are covered by Mediclaim policy. Investigate who is beneficiary in these hospitals. Hi

    A Blend of Spices in a Meal May Lower Inflammation, Finds Study
    Traditionally, spices have been added to a meal to improve taste and, perhaps, make them more palatable. Now, reinforcing their numerous health benefits, a new research study has found that a blend of spices in your meal may help lower inflammation in our bodies. 
     
    A randomised, controlled feeding study was conducted by researchers from Penn State University the results of which were published in the Journal of Nutrition. The study reports that participants who ate a meal high in fat and carbohydrates with six grams of a spice blend added, displayed lower inflammation markers in comparison with those who ate with less or no spices. 
     
    According to Prof Connie Rogers, the lead author of this study, other researchers have linked a variety of different spices, like ginger and turmeric, with anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies have also found that inflammation can spike after a person eats a meal high in fat or sugar. While it is not clear whether these short bursts of acute inflammations, can cause chronic inflammation, Prof Rogers suspects that they play a factor, especially in obese or overweight people. 
     
    "Ultimately the gold standard would be to get people eating more healthfully and to lose weight and exercise, but those behavioural changes are difficult and take time. So in the interim, we wanted to explore whether a combination of spices that people are already familiar with and could fit in a single meal could have a positive effect,” explained Prof Rogers. 
     
    For the study, researchers recruited 12 men between the ages of 40 and 65, who were either overweight or obese, and had at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Prof Rogers explained that such a sample was chosen because people in these demographics tend to be at a higher risk for developing poorer health outcomes. For the purposes of their study, the researchers devised a blend of spices that included basil, bay leaf, black pepper, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, ginger, oregano, parsley, red pepper, rosemary, thyme and turmeric.
     
    In a randomised order, each participant ate three versions of a meal high in saturated fat and carbohydrates on three separate days: one with no spices, one with two grams of the spice blend, and one with six grams of the slice blend. A blood sample was drawn before and after each meal, hourly for four hours to measure inflammatory markers. 
     
    "Additionally, we cultured the white blood cells and stimulated them to get the cells to respond to an inflammatory stimulus, similar to what would happen while your body is fighting an infection. We think that's important because it's representative of what would happen in the body. Cells would encounter a pathogen and produce inflammatory cytokines,” said Prof Rogers. 
     
    Upon analysis of the data, researchers found that inflammatory cytokines were reduced following a meal containing six grams of spices, compared to the meal containing two grams of spices or no spices. Prof Rogers explained that six grams roughly translates to a measure of between one teaspoon and one tablespoon, depending on how the spices are dehydrated.
     
    While the researchers are not certain which spice or spices were contributing to the effect, or the precise mechanism in which the effect is created, Prof Rogers said that the results suggested that spices have anti-inflammatory properties which help offset inflammation caused by the high-carb and high-fat meal.
     
    Furthermore, a supplementary study conducted by other Penn State University researchers has found that six grams of spices resulted in a smaller post-meal reduction of ‘flow mediated dilation’ in the blood vessels—a measure of blood vessel flexibility and marker of blood vessel health. 
     
    Prof Rogers is hoping to work in collaboration with other researchers to further determine the affects of spices in diet across periods of time and in a more diverse population. 
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    Ramesh Popat

    1 month ago

    Ancient ayurveda has too many miracles of spices already
    proved and more effective and safer than antibiotics!

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