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Moneylife » Life » Public Interest » World renowned academicians say level of uncertainty in biometrics is too high and UID tests prove nothing

World renowned academicians say level of uncertainty in biometrics is too high and UID tests prove nothing

Moneylife Digital Team | 24/05/2011 06:33 PM | 

A study argues that there is too much uncertainty in biometrics to predict how well the technology will perform in the real world, much less support investment in this technology

Three scholars who have provided the academic foundation for the biometrics industry, particularly in the Western world, say that the level of uncertainty in biometrics is so great that tests prove nothing.

The academicians have, in a paper titled "Fundamental issues in biometric performance testing: A modern statistical and philosophical framework for uncertainty assessment", argued that the level of uncertainty in biometrics is so great that they cannot be used to predict how well the technology will perform in the real world and therefore this cannot support a valid argument for investment in biometrics.

The academicians are James L Wayman from San José State University, Antonio Possolo, head of the statistical engineering division at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Anthony J Mansfield from UK National Physical Laboratory, all recognised as stalwarts of the biometrics industry.

However, the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), which has embarked on a tagging programme that is based on biometrics, is silent on the report. The institution has, till now, been quick to associate with other academic groups.

While UIDAI claims that biometrics will allow it to deliver a unique identification, it has goofed up its own test results while pushing its ambitious Aadhaar project. (Read, 'How UIDAI goofed up pilot test results to press forward with UID scheme'.)

Since its inception, UIDAI has tried to force the use of biometrics for the UID number as the ultimate solution. UIDAI conducted a proof of the concept trial of the Aadhaar project between March and June 2010. The results of the concept trial, or scenario test, suggest that biometrics cannot be reliable and may encounter huge problems while dealing with false positives.

David Moss, who spent eight years campaigning against the UK's National ID (NID) card scheme, sees hard times ahead for the global mass consumer biometrics industry. He said, "Not only has the industry lost its academic support, but governments are starting to abandon ship. President Obama's plans for trusted identity on the web make no mention of biometrics. The same goes for the UK's plans for identity assurance, in which case also there is no mention of relying on biometrics at all."
 
"The superstitious belief in mass consumer biometrics is like an illness, it's like the tulip mania that affected Holland in the 17th century. And now, perhaps, it is passing. Even in Holland, where they announced last month that they have suspended their plans to develop a centralised population register recording every person's biometrics," Mr Moss said.

There are three types of tests used for biometrics. One is the lab or technology test; the other is the operational or field test; and the third is a scenario test. A biometrics technology test is conducted in the lab and is entirely computer-based. An operational test is conducted in the field, in the real world, with the biometrics package coming under attack from different, unpredictable sets. In a scenario test, researchers recruit a putatively representative sample of the population so that they can test the biometrics packages with real people under still fairly controllable conditions. The UIDAI used the scenario test for UID.

On the scenario test, the three academicians write, "The test repeatability and reproducibility observed in technology tests are lost in scenario testing due to the loss of statistical control over a wide range of influence quantities. Our inability to apply concepts of statistical control to any or all of these factors will increase the level of uncertainty in our results and translate to loss of both repeatability and reproducibility. Test data from scenario evaluations should not be used as input to mathematical models of operational environments that require high levels of certainty for validity."

This exactly is the reason why governments across the globe are not emphasising on biometrics anymore. Last year, the newly-elected government in the UK scrapped the National ID programme citing huge costs, impracticality and ungovernable breaches of privacy associated with the programme. Last month, the US released its 'National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace' signed by president Obama and nowhere has the 45-page document used the word 'biometrics'.

Also in April, the Dutch government suspended its plan to develop a centralised flat print fingerprint population register, citing concerns about security and reliability of the system.

However, this is not the case with India, where it seems that there is ample money and nobody cares about security, reliability and privacy, and everybody from politicians, corporates to the media are 'greased', directly or indirectly. This is the reason why UIDAI is forcing the UID number onto gullible citizens.

"Why is India spending billions on Aadhaar, which depends on biometrics whose reliability is, so say the titans, utterly unknowable? And will the UIDAI ever answer my question how they can claim to offer unique identification when, based on their own figures, they would have to perform 18,000,000,000,000 (18 trillion or 18 lakh crore) manual checks to prove uniqueness? And why do they think Aadhaar will eradicate corruption, rather than automate corruption," asks Mr Moss.

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6 Comments
starsom

starsom 3 years ago

Dear ALL,

If UID Process has to be stopped it has to be now !! Because after this process all will be at the mercy of the "Technology". That is point of no return. It will be " TOTAL SURRENDER FOREVER".

We must explore potential use against citizens and see the complete picture.

They will be more clearly exposed if one analyses full depth of technologies involved.

Reported Evidences show that Governments have attempted to develop such captive weapons and surveillance technology.

There are cases reported which show that these technologies are being experimented on Human Beings Non-Consensually all around the WORLD.

It won’t be surprising if these technologies will be applied universally to all populations via Biometric Databases available with the government.


Know More about Raytheon projects and Patents (BIG BROTHER TYPE)


Surveillance program The Complete Picture
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NSA contracts with Raytheon to launch internet surveillance program
Key Excerpts from Article on Website of Wall Street Journal

U.S. Plans Cyber Shield for Utilities, Companies
Wall Street Journal, July 8, 2010
Posted: 2010-07-12 10:52:28
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424...
Some industry and government officials familiar with the program see Perfect Citizen as an intrusion by the NSA into domestic affairs. One internal Raytheon email, the text of which was seen by The Wall Street Journal [said,] "Perfect Citizen is Big Brother." Raytheon declined to comment on this email.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Orwellian Scenario: Bringing the War Home, Preparing the Domestic Battlespace
LA County Jail to Field-Test Raytheon Pain Ray

by Tom Burghardt
http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?c...
…..How much easier will it be for police to abuse prisoners when they have at their disposal technologies that won't even leave a mark? As LA County Sheriff's Commander Osborne blandly remarked "there's nothing to clean up."…………..
The Tehran Times-- The policeman in your head By Hamid Golpira Many people believe the global police state taking shape will have policemen, soldiers, and other security personnel on every corner, constantly monitoring our movements and checking our ID cards, but that won’t happen because the policeman will be in your head. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.as...
The NSA & Synthetic Telepathy:
WE Have No Secrets (Anymore)
http://www.charlesrehn.com/charlesrehn/b...
………….. Recent revelations of illegal NSA surveillance activities are no surprise to a growing number of people whose lives have been disrupted and destroyed by the high-tech CoIntelPro(13) styled efforts of America's intelligence communities.
Excerpt: Carole Smith, PhD: On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology (2b)
Some patents, now owned by Raytheon, describe how to make “nuclear sized explosions without radiation” and describe power beam systems, electromagnetic pulses and over-the-horizon detection systems. A more disturbing use is the system developed for manipulating and disturbing the human mental process using pulsed radio frequency radiation (RFR), and their use as a device for causing negative effects on human health and thinking. The victim, the innocent civilian target is locked on to, and unable to evade the menace by moving around. The beam is administered from space. The Haarp (2c) facility as military technology could be used to broadcast global mind-control, as a system for manipulating and disturbing the human mental process using pulsed radio frequency (RFR). ……….
Millimeter Waves and Mind Control
http://www.sonic.net/kryptox/mcp/millime...
Alan Yu 3-97 News Post
________________________________________
From: AlanYu AlanYu@prodigy.net
Newsgroups: alt.mindcontrol
Subject: Freedom of privacy & thoughts
Date: Sat, 22 Mar 1997

Dear Readers,
I have stated that there is nothing can hide in the mind control surveillance system because these operators are using the state of art remote watching technology. Now, I found more information to prove what I have stated is correct. I would show readers such kind of information below:
(attachment)--"New Scientist", Nov. 5, 1995 supplement ( London , UK )
________________________________________
No Where to Hide
If you want to see the future of surveillance, take a trip into the world of millimetre waves and the video cameras that are sensitive to them. People are stripped of their clothes and become featureless, luminous humanoids. Silhouetted against their bodies and suspended as if by magic, hang coins, buckles, pens and keys. Cars are dark and sinister, although their hot radiator grills are bright. Only the steel in reinforced concrete shows up, so buildings look more like cages of copper pipes and electricity cables than homes and offices. There is little privacy in the world revealed by the millimetre-wave camera. Sitting rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms and lavatories all merge into one open space. People sit in their cages watching warm boxes, others sleep while suspended a few centimetres above the floor. …………………

Brain Wave Monitors / Analysers
Lawrence Pinneo, a neurophysiologist and electronic engineer working for Stanford Research Institute (a military contractor) is the first known" pioneer in this field.In 1974 he developed a computer system which correlated brain waves on an electroencephalograph with specific commands. In the early 1990s, Dr Edward Taub reported that words could be communicated onto a screen using the thought-activated movements of a computer cursor. (Currently under secrecy provisions; "Classified") In 1994, the brain wave patterns of 40 subjects were officially correlated with both spoken words and silent thought. This was achieved by a neurophysiologist, Dr Donald York, and a speech pathologist, Dr Thomas Jensen, from the University of Missouri . They clearly identified 27 words / syllables in specific brain wave patterns and produced a computer program with a brain wave vocabulary.
It does not take much thinking to realise that the US agencies have access to a perfected version of this technology. In fact the relevant computers have a vocabulary in excess of 60,000 words and cover most languages. In fact, the NSA's signals intelligence monitor the brainwaves of their targets by satellite and decode the evoked potentials (3.50Hz 5 milliwatts) that the brain emits. So, using lasers / satellites and high-powered computers the agencies have now gained the ability to decipher human thoughts - and from a considerable distance (instantaneously).
How is it done?
The magnetic field around the head, the brain waves of an individual can be monitored by satellite. The transmitter is therefore the brain itself just as body heat is used for "Iris" satellite tracking (infrared) or mobile phones or bugs can be tracked as "transmitters". In the case of brain wave monitoring the results are then fed back to the relevant computers. Monitors then use the information to conduct a "conversation" where audible neurophone input is "applied" to the victim. Human thought operates at 5,000 bits/sec but satellites and various forms of biotelemetry can deliver those thoughts to supercomputers in Maryland, U.S.A, Israel, etc which have a speed of over 300 trillion bits/sec which means just one (Blue Gene) supercomputer can process more information than ten times the entire world's population. These, even today, monitor millions of people simultaneously. Eventually they will monitor almost everyone...worse than any Orwellian "Big Brother" nightmare you could possibly imagine, only it will be a reality. Yet our world leaders, who know this, do nothing. UPDATE (2005) - IBM's Blue Gene computer can reportedly process 227 trillion flops per second. Even if each calculation involved only one 'bit' of information, one such computer could process more information than five times the earth's total population... With supercomputers taking overt brain downloads within 40 years, total computer consciousness looms as an open threat for the future of mankind, just as, secretly, it already torments those victimised as covert targets of high tech brain monitoring technology. Usually the targets are aware their brain waves are being monitored because of the accompanying neurophone feedback. In other words, the computer repeats (echoes) your own thoughts and then the human monitors comment or respond verbally. Both are facilitated by the neurophone.
NB Whilst the live/human comments are individualistic and unrelated to the victims own thought processes oftentimes the artificial intelligence involved will parrot standard phrases. These are triggered by your thoughts while the human monitors remain silent or absent.To comprehend how terrible such a thorough invasion of privacy can be - imagine being quizzed on your past as you lie in bed. You eventually fall off to sleep, having personal or "induced" dreams, only to wake to the monitors commenting / ridiculing your subconscious thoughts (dreams).
If the ability to "brain scan" individuals expands from the million or so currently under scrutiny to include ALL inhabitants of the planet (as per the Echelon surveillance system which already monitors ALL private/commercial telecommunications) then no-one will ever be able to even think about expressing an opinion contrary to those forced on us by the New World Order. There will literally be no intellectual property that cannot be stolen, no writing that cannot be censored, no thought that cannot be suppressed (by the most oppressive/invasive means).
*************************************************************


Reported Evidences that Governments have attempted to develop such captive weapons and surveillance technology. One such court case is by John St. Clair Akwei is a former National Security Agency employee and whistle-blower who exposed the use of neural monitoring to spy on individuals. The Signals Intelligence mission of the NSA has evolved into a program of decoding EMF waves in the environment for wirelessly tapping into computers and tracking persons with the electrical currents in their bodies.

WALL STREET JOURNAL - NSA's DOMESTIC SPYING GROWS
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB12051197...

SPACE-BASED DOMESTIC SPYING: KICKING CIVIL LIBERTIES TO THE CURB
http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?c...
Is the NSA Conducting Electronic Warfare On Americans? http://www.exposingalltruth.com/
ELECTROMAGNETIC AND INFORMATIONAL WEAPONS: THE REMOTE MANIPULATION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN http://globalresearch.ca/articles/BAB408...

WASHINGTONPOST Cover Story Mind Games
“…………The documents are an authentic-looking mix of news stories, articles culled from military journals and even some declassified national security documents that do seem to show that the U.S. government has attempted to develop weapons that send voices into people's heads…………” Cover Story Mind Games By Sharon Weinberger
Sunday, January 14, 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/con...

The Institute of Science in Society- Bio-electromagnetic Weapons- A weapon system that operates at the speed of light, that can kill, torture, enslave and escape detection. Harlan Girard http://www.i-sis.org.uk/BW.php

The Tehran Times - Mind War 4 Hamid Golpira-- Everyone is worried about World War III breaking out but almost no one has noticed that we’re in the middle of Mind War 4. Actually, the mind wars are so clandestine that we may be in the middle of Mind War 40 for all we know. The matrix is real. The Mind War has entrapped the minds of most of humanity, and most people live in a fantasy world totally disconnected from reality. Fortunately, a liberation movement has arisen, the freethinking resistance, which is trying to help people free their minds. http://www.tehrantimes.com/Index_view.as...

The Tehran Times-- The policeman in your head - Hamid Golpira Many people believe the global police state taking shape will have policemen, soldiers, and other security personnel on every corner, constantly monitoring our movements and checking our ID cards, but that won’t happen because the policeman will be in your head. http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.as...
The Kassandra Project: freedom against disinformation
Government Thought Policing: The NSA and Remote Neural Monitoring (RNM) April 12, 2008 http://kassandraproject.wordpress.com/20...
“…….. The following information was evidence provided in a civil suit against the federal government in the case Akwei v. NSA (92-0449). John St. Clair Akwei is a former National Security Agency employee and whistle-blower who exposed the use of neural monitoring to spy on individuals. The Signals Intelligence mission of the NSA has evolved into a program of decoding EMF waves in the environment for wirelessly tapping into computers and tracking persons with the electrical currents in their bodies……” How The National Security Agency (NSA) Illegally And Unconstitutionally Harasses Law-Abiding Americans Everyday. How, you ask? Quite simply, actually. It’s done by EMF or ELF Radio Waves, and a technology known as “Remote Neural Monitoring”. Haven’t you ever wondered about that ringing in your left ear? Well, here are the reason(s). And just why should the NSA do this, you ask? To silence any who who dare to speak out against them or any other agency, or the Government or simply to think for themselves, and “outside the box”, if you will. Think not? Then, read on………. 92 Replies

The link to OVER 1000 DIRECTED ENERGY AND SURVEILLANCE, NEUROLOGICAL WEAPONS, AND ORGANISED STALKING, TORTURE, DEGRADATION AND MUTILATION VICTIMS' CASE SUMMARIES . http://www.4shared.com/dir/21674443/7553...

FASCIST TECHNOLOGICAL POLICE STATE by Paul Baird
http://www.surveillanceissues.com/articl...

USA REPRESENTATIVE JIM GUEST'S (MO) LETTER
http://www.freedomfchs.com/repjimguestlt...

US SPY AGENCIES SPENT NEARLY $50 BN IN 2009
http://globalresearch.ca/index.php?conte...

THE SHOCKING MENACE OF SATELLITE SURVEILLANCE by John Fleming
http://www.sianews.com/modules.php?name=...

BRAIN AND SATELLITE SURVEILLANCE AND TORTURE – REMOTE NEURAL MONITORING & ELECTRONIC BRAIN LINK (RNM & EBL) http://myweb.cableone.net/mtilton/akwei....
http://www.greatdreams.com/RNM.htm http://www.freedomfchs.com/remoteneuralm...

SYSTEMS OF SURVEILLANCE & REPRESSION by Judy Malloy
http://www.well.com/user/jmalloy/guntera...

THE AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION - THE SURVEILLANCE-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX:
http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/surveillan...

MIND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY EXPOSED
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/36936010/MIN...

BAN ELECTRONIC WARFARE ON CIVILIANS PETITION - 400+ SIGNATURES AND MESSAGES OF VICTIMS & SUPPORTERS http://www.ipetitions.com/petition/syner...

PETITION: UNCOVER THE USA GOVERNMENT'S DAILY WORLDWIDE SECRET UNSUSPECTED SATELLITE MIND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY ATTACK ACTIVITIES, & COHERENCY WITH ITS ECHELON GLOBAL SPY SYSTEM http://www.petitiononline.com/AbiJXYcn/p... http://www.petitiononline.com/Mandrake/p...

SATELLITE AND BRAIN WEAPONS ASSAULT, TORTURE AND MUTILATION - VICTIMS' ORGANISATIONS & FURTHER INFORMATION:-FREEDOM FROM COVERT HARASSMENT AND SURVEILLANCE http://freedomfchs.com/

MIND JUSTICE http://www.mindjustice.org/

INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON OFFENSIVE MICROWAVE WEAPONS http://www.icomw.org/

ILLEGAL HUMAN EXPERIMENTING & ELECTROMAGNETIC MINDCONTROL http://www.netti.fi/~makako/mind/index.h...


THE AMERICAN COGNITIVE LIBERTIES ASSOCIATION http://americancognitivelibertiesassoc.o...

SURVEILLANCE ISSUES http://www.surveillanceissues.com

EMERGING COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES by the COMMITTEE ON MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record...

PSYCHIC COMPUTER SHOWS YOUR THOUGHTS ON SCREEN
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/sc...


AND NOW…………

Raytheon looks to enter Indian defence market
The company is vying for a pie of India ’s potential $80 billion defence market in the next ten years
http://www.livemint.com/2011/02/22150114...
……………There had been some media reports that said that Raytheon had shared some classified data regarding these programs with the Indian government. Can you confirm or deny those reports?
We cannot comment on that. ……………….



Some of the Patents with Raytheon & IBM for surveillance program.
US PATENT 6,011,991--COMMUNICATION SYSTEM AND METHOD INCLUDING BRAIN WAVE ANALYSIS AND/OR USE OF BRAIN ACTIVITY--A system and method for enabling human beings to communicate by way of their monitored brain activity. The brain activity of an individual is monitored and transmitted to a remote location (e.g. by satellite). At the remote location, the monitored brain activity is compared with pre-recorded normalized brain activity curves, waveforms, or patterns to determine if a match or substantial match is found. If such a match is found, then the computer at the remote location determines that the individual was attempting to communicate the word, phrase, or thought corresponding to the matched stored normalized signal.

US PATENT -3,727,616-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR STIMULATION OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. --- A receiver totally implanted within a living body is inductively coupled by two associated receiving coils to a physically unattached external transmitter which transmits two signals of different frequencies to the receiver via two associated transmitting coils. One of the signals from the transmitter provides the implanted receiver with precise control or stimulating signals which are demodulated and processed in a signal processor network in the receiver and then used by the body for stimulation of a nerve, for example, while the other signal provides the receiver with a continuous wave power signal which is rectified in the receiver to provide a source of electrical operating power for the receiver circuitry without need for an implanted battery.

US PATENT 4,893,815—INTERACTIVE TRANSECTOR DEVICE COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY GRADE-- . A transector system for tracking and neutralizing a designated target body, including: sensing means for sensing signals associated with any body within the range of the system and producing an output signal characteristic of that body; central computer means including signal processing means coupled to said sensing means and responsive to said output signal to digitize and store the same; said computer means including, in addition, repertoire storage means and comparator means; said repertoire storage means having stored therein digitized signals representing the signals emanating from the target body; said comparator means being coupled to said sensing means and to said repertoire storage means for comparing output signals from said sensing means with said stored digitized signals in said repertoire storage means and for producing a lock-on output signal when said output signal from said sensing means corresponds to said digitized signal representing said target body; said signal processing means including means to determine the range, azimuth and elevation of each body, the signals from which are being sensed, and, in particular, producing a digital location signal representative of the location of the target body when the lock-on signal occurs; projectile means including a projectile computer, said projectile computer having projectile signal-processing means and volatile storage means therein;said volatile storage means being coupled, before launch of said projectile, to said signal processing means for updating said projectile computer with the latest digitized target body location signal; said projectile computer including an expert program for controlling said projectile signal-processing means and for controlling the flight of said projectile.

US PATENT 3,951,134 - APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REMOTELY MONITORING AND ALTERING BRAIN WAVES--Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject's brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.

US PATENT- US5629678 -IMPLANTABLE TRANSCEIVER-Apparatus for Tracking And Recovering Humans.

US PATENT --4,717,343 --METHOD OF CHANGING A PERSON'S BEHAVIOR--A method of conditioning a person's unconscious mind in order to effect a desired change in the person's behavior which does not require the services of a trained therapist. Instead the person to be treated views a program of video pictures appearing on a screen. The program as viewed by the person's unconscious mind acts to condition the person's thought patterns in a manner which alters that person's behavior in a positive way. SOURCE: Judy Wall, Mike Coyle and Jan Wiesemann. Paranoia Magazine Issue 24 Fall 2000 -Article -'Technology to Your Mind' - By Judy Wall

US PATENT -- 4,877,027 -- HEARING SYSTEM -- Sound is induced in the head of a person by radiating the head with microwaves in the range of 100 megahertz to 10,000 megahertz that are modulated with a particular waveform. The waveform consists of frequency modulated bursts. Each burst is made up of ten to twenty uniformly spaced pulses grouped tightly together. The
burst width is between 500 nanoseconds and 100 microseconds. The pulse width is in the range of 10 nanoseconds to 1 microsecond. The bursts are frequency modulated by the audio input to create the sensation of hearing in the person whose head is irradiated.

US PATENT -- 5,507,291 – METHOD AND ASSOCIATED APPARATUS FOR REMOTELY DETERMINING INFORMATION AS TO PERSON’S EMOTIONAL STATE -- In a method for remotely determining information relating to a person's emotional state, an waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual's emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee's responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.

US Patent 3,393,279. US Patent 3,647,970. -- The Neurophone was developed by Dr Patrick Flanagan in 1958.-- It's a device that converts sound to electrical impulses. In its original form electrodes were placed on the skin but with defence department developments, the signals can be delivered via satellite. They then travel the nervous system directly to the brain (bypassing normal hearing mechanisms). Dr Flanagan's "3D holographic sound system" can place sounds in any location as perceived by the targeted / tortured listener. This allows for a variety of deceptions for gullible victims. A speech waveform is converted to a constant amplitude square wave in which the transitions between the amplitude extremes are spaced so as to carry the speech information. The system includes a pair of tuned amplifier circuits which act as high-pass filters having a 6 decibel per octave slope from 0 to 15,000 cycles followed by two stages, each comprised of an amplifier and clipper circuit, for converting the filtered waveform to a square wave. A radio transmitter and receiver having a plurality of separate channels within a conventional single side band transmitter bandwidth and a system for transmitting secure speech information are also disclosed.

U.S. patent #3,566,347, (23/2/71)
A device/weapon which can actually deafen the target.

US PATENT --5,036,858 – METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR CHANGING BRAIN WAVE FREQUENCY. -- A method for changing brain wave frequency to a desired frequency determines a current brain wave frequency of a user, generates two frequencies with a frequency difference of a magnitude between that of the current actual brain wave frequency and the desired frequency but always within a predetermined range of the current actual brain wave frequency, and produces an output to the user corresponding to the two frequencies. One apparatus to accomplish the method has a computer processor, a computer memory, EEG electrodes along with an amplifier, a programmable timing generator responsive to the computer processor for generating the two frequencies, audio amplifiers and a beat frequency generator driving a visual frequency amplifier.

US PATENT -- 5,213,562 -- METHOD OF INDUCING MENTAL, EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, INCLUDING SPECIFIC MENTAL ACTIVITY, IN HUMAN BEINGS --A method having applicability in replication of desired consciousness states; in the training of an individual to replicate such a state of consciousness without further audio stimulation; and in the transferring of such states from one human being to another through the imposition of one individual's EEG, superimposed on desired stereo signals, on another individual, by inducement of a binaural beat phenomenon.

US PATENT 5,123,899 --METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR ALTERING CONSCIOUSNESS--A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation g=s.sup.n/4 .multidot.f where: f=frequency of one stimulus; g=frequency of the other stimuli of stimulus; and n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus. ALSO SEE: US PATENT --5,289,438 --METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR ALTERING CONSCIOUSNESS SOURCE: Judy Wall, Mike Coyle and Jan Wiesemann. Paranoia Magazine Issue 24 Fall 2000 -Article -'Technology to Your Mind' - By Judy Wall

US PATENT -- 5,289,438 – METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR ALTERING CONSCIOUSNESS --A system for altering the states of human consciousness involves the simultaneous application of multiple stimuli, preferable sounds, having differing frequencies and wave forms. The relationship between the frequencies of the several stimuli is exhibited by the equation where: f=frequency of one stimulus; g=frequency of the other stimuli or stimulus; and n=a positive or negative integer which is different for each other stimulus.

US PATENT 5,629,678 - PERSONAL TRACKING AND RECOVERY SYSTEM--Apparatus for tracking and recovering humans utilizes an implantable transceiver incorporating a power supply and actuation system allowing the unit to remain implanted and functional for years without maintenance. The implanted transmitter may be remotely actuated, or actuated by the implantee. Power for the remote-activated receiver is generated electromechanically through the movement of body muscle. The device is small enough to be implanted in a child, facilitating use as a safeguard against kidnapping, and has a transmission range which also makes it suitable for wilderness sporting activities. A novel biological monitoring feature allows the device to be used to facilitate prompt medical dispatch in the event of heart attack or similar medical emergency. A novel sensation-feedback feature allows the implantee to control and actuate the device with certainty.

US PATENT 5,760,692 - INTRA-ORAL TRACKING DEVICE-An intra-oral tracking device adapted for use in association with a tooth having a buccal surface and a lingual surface, the apparatus comprises a tooth mounting member having an inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface including adhesive material ; a remote transmitter-receiver assembly including means to transmit and receive electronic signals, the transmitter-receiver being affixed to the outer surface of the tooth mounting member, the remote transmitter-receiver assembly positioned adjacent to the buccal surface of the tooth; and a base transmitter-receiver device including means to transmit and receive electronic signals, the device including a transmission button and a display screen, in an operative orientation a user depressing the transmission button of the base transmitter-receiver device to activate the remote transmitter-receiver, activation of the remote transmitter-receiver device causing the transmission of electrical signals for receipt by the base transmitter-receiver device, the base transmitter-receiver device thereby displaying the location of the remote transmitter- receiver assembly to enable a user to locate a lost individual.

US PATENT 6,006,188 - SPEECH SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR DETERMINING PSYCHOLOGICAL OR PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS USING A KNOWLEDGE BASE --A speech-based system for assessing the psychological, physiological, or other characteristics of a test subject is described. The system includes a knowledge base that stores one or more speech models, where each speech model corresponds to a characteristic of a group of reference subjects. Signal processing circuitry, which may be implemented in hardware, software and/or firmware, compares the test speech parameters of a test subject with the speech models. In one embodiment, each speech model is represented by a statistical time-ordered series of frequency representations of the speech of the reference subjects. The speech model is independent of a priori knowledge of style parameters associated with the voice or speech. The system includes speech parameterization circuitry for generating the test parameters in response to the test subject's speech. This circuitry includes speech acquisition circuitry, which may be located remotely from the knowledge base. The system further includes output circuitry for outputting at least one indicator of a characteristic in response to the comparison performed by the signal processing circuitry. The characteristic may be time-varying, in which case the output circuitry outputs the characteristic in a time-varying manner. The output circuitry also may output a ranking of each output characteristic. In one embodiment, one or more characteristics may indicate the degree of sincerity of the test subject, where the degree of sincerity may vary with time. The system may also be employed
to determine the effectiveness of treatment for a psychological or physiological disorder by comparing psychological or physiological characteristics, respectively, before and after treatment.

US PATENT -- 6,470,214 -- METHOD AND DEVICE FOR IMPLEMENTING THE RADIO FREQUENCY HEARING EFFECT.-- A modulation process with a fully suppressed carrier and input preprocessor filtering to produce an encoded output; for amplitude modulation (AM) and audio speech preprocessor filtering, intelligible subjective sound is produced when the encoded signal is demodulated using the RF Hearing Effect. Suitable forms of carrier suppressed modulation include single sideband (SSB) and carrier suppressed amplitude modulation (CSAM),with both sidebands present.

US PATENT -- 6,488,617 – METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PRODUCING A DESIRED BRAIN STATE.-- A method and device for the production of a desired brain state in an individual contain means for monitoring and analyzing the brain state while a set of one or more magnets produce fields that alter this state. A computational system alters various parameters of the magnetic fields in order to close the gap between the actual and desired brain state. This feedback process operates continuously until the gap is minimized and/or removed.

US PATENT -- 6,506,148 -- NERVOUS SYSTEM MANIPULATION BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FROM MONITORS. --Physiological effects have been observed in a human subject in response to stimulation of the skin with weak electromagnetic fields that are pulsed with certain frequencies near 1/2 Hz or 2.4 Hz, such as to excite a sensory resonance. Many computer monitors and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed images, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of sufficient amplitudes to cause such excitation. It is therefore possible to manipulate the nervous system of a subject by pulsing images displayed on a nearby computer monitor or TV set. For the latter, the image pulsing may be imbedded in the program material, or it may be overlaid by modulating a video stream, either as an RF signal or as a video signal. The image displayed on a computer monitor may be pulsed effectively by a simple computer program. For certain monitors, pulsed electromagnetic fields capable of exciting sensory resonances in nearby subjects may be generated even as the displayed images are pulsed with subliminal intensity.

US PATENT -- 6,754,472 – METHOD AND APPRATUS FOR TRANSMITTING POWER AND DATA USING THE HUMAN BODY.--Methods and apparatus for distributing power and data to devices coupled to the human body are described.The human body is used as a conductive medium, e.g., a bus, over which power and/or data is distributed.Power is distributed by coupling a power source to the human body via a first set of electrodes. One or more devise to be powered, e.g., peripheral devices, are also coupled to the human body via additional sets of electrodes. The devices may be, e.g., a speaker, display, watch, keyboard, etc. A pulsed DC signal or AC signal may be used as the power source. By using multiple power supply signals of differing frequencies, different devices can be selectively powered. Digital data and/or other information signals, e.g., audio signals, can be
modulated on the power signal using frequency and/or amplitude modulation techniques.

US PATENT 6,014,080 - BODY WORN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TRACKING DEVICE --Tamper resistant body-worn tracking device to be worn by offenders or potential victims for use in a wireless communication system receiving signals from a global positioning system (GPS).

US PATENT 6,017,302 - SUBLIMINAL ACOUSTIC MANIPULATION OF NERVOUS SYSTEMS --In human subjects, sensory resonances can be excited by subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses that are tuned to the resonance frequency. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance affects the autonomic nervous system and may cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation. For these effects to occur, the acoustic intensity must lie in a certain deeply subliminal range. Suitable apparatus consists of a portable battery-powered source of weak subaudio acoustic radiation. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects. It is then preferable to use venting acoustic monopoles in the form of a device that inhales and exhales air with subaudio frequency.

US PATENT 6,051,594 - METHODS AND FORMULATIONS FOR MODULATING THE HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE--The invention is directed to improved methods for modulating the human sexual response by orally administering a formulation of the vasodilator phentolamine to the blood circulation and thereby modulating the sexual response on demand.

US PATENT 6,052,336 - APPARATUS AND METHOD OF BROADCASTING AUDIBLE SOUND USING ULTRASONIC SOUND AS A CARRIER--An ultrasonic sound source broadcasts an ultrasonic signal which is amplitude and/or frequency modulated with an information input signal originating from an information input source. If the signals are amplitude modulated, a square root function of the information input signal is produced prior to modulation. The modulated signal, which may be amplified, is then broadcast via a projector unit, whereupon an individual or group of individuals located in the broadcast region detect the audible sound.

US PATENT -- 3,884,218 -- METHOD OF INDUCING AND MAINTAINING VARIOUS STAGES OF SLEEP IN HUMAN BEING --A method of inducing sleep in a human being wherein an audio signal is generated comprising a familiar pleasing repetitive sound modulated by an EEG sleep pattern. The volume of the audio signal is adjusted to overcome the ambient noise and a subject can select a familiar repetitive sound most pleasing to himself.

US PATENT -- 4,335,710 –DEVISE FOR THE INDUCTION OF SPECIFIC BRAIN WAVE PATTERNS --Brain wave patterns associated with relaxed and meditative states in a subject are gradually induced without deleterious chemical or neurological side effects. A white noise generator (11) has the spectral noise density of its output signal modulated in a manner similar to the brain wave patterns by a switching transistor (18) within a spectrum modulator (12). The modulated white noise signal is amplified by output amplifier (13) and converted to an audio signal by acoustic transducer (14). Ramp generator (16) gradually increases the voltage received by and resultant output frequency of voltage controlled oscillator (17) whereby switching transistor (18) periodically shunts the high frequency components of the white noise signal to ground.

US PATENT -- 4,395,600 -- AUDITORY SUBLIMINAL MESSEGE SYSTEM AND METHOD --Ambient audio signals from the customer shopping area within a store are sensed and fed to a signal processing
circuit that produces a control signal which varies with variations in the amplitude of the sensed audio signals. A control circuit adjusts the amplitude of an auditory subliminal anti-shoplifting message to increase with increasing
amplitudes of sensed audio signals and decrease with decreasing amplitudes of sensed audio signals. This amplitude controlled subliminal message may be mixed with background music and transmitted to the shopping area. To reduce distortion of the subliminal message, its amplitude is controlled to increase at a first rate slower than the rate of increase of the amplitude of ambient audio signals from the area. Also, the amplitude of the subliminal message is controlled to decrease at a second rate faster than the first rate with decreasing ambient audio signal amplitudes to minimize the possibility of the subliminal message becoming supraliminal upon rapid declines in ambient audio signal amplitudes in the area. A masking signal is provided with an amplitude which is also controlled in response to the amplitude of sensed ambient audio signals. This masking signal may be combined with the auditory subliminal message to provide a composite signal fed to, and controlled by, the control circuit.

US PATENT -- 4,573,449 -- METHOD FOR STIMULATING THE FALLING ASLEEP AND/OR RELAXING BEHAVIOUR OF A PERSON AND AN ARRANGEMENT THEREFORE --A method and apparatus is provided with which a person suffering from sleeplessness can be more easily relaxed and may more rapidly fall asleep. In particular, sound pulses are emitted by an electro-acoustictransducer, according to the cadence of which, the person seeking to fall asleep is induced to breathe in and out over a predetermined period of time. By suitably selecting the pulse sequence frequency, the pitch and the amplitude of the sound pulses may be adjusted thereby enhancing the process of falling asleep.

US PATENT -- 4,834,701 -- APPARATUS FOR INDUCING FREQUENCY REDUCTION IN BRAIN WAVE --Frequency reduction in human brain wave is inducible by allowing human brain to perceive 4-16 hertz beat sound. Such beat sound can be easily produced with an apparatus, comprising at least one sound source generating a set of low-frequency signals different each other in frequency by 4-16 hertz. Electroencephalographic study revealed that the beat sound is effective to reduce beta-rhythm into alpha- rhythm, as well as to retain alpha-rhythm.

US PATENT 5,270,800 --SUBLIMINAL MESSAGE GENERATOR--A combined subliminal and supraliminal message generator for use with a television receiver permits complete control of subliminal messages and their manner of presentation. A video synchronization detector enables a video display generator to generate a video message signal corresponding to a received alphanumeric text message in synchronism with a received television signal. A video mixer selects either the received video signal or the video message signal for output. The messages produced by the video message generator are user selectable via a keyboard input. A message memory stores a plurality of alphanumeric text messages specified by user commands for use as subliminal messages. This message memory preferably includes a read only memory storing predetermined sets of alphanumeric text messages directed to differing topics. The sets of predetermined alphanumeric text messages preferably include several positive affirmations directed to the left brain and an equal number of positive affirmations directed to the right brain that are alternately presented subliminally. The left brain messages are presented in a linear text mode, while the right brain messages are presented in a three dimensional perspective mode. The user can control the length and spacing of the subliminal presentations to accommodate differing conscious thresholds. Alternative embodiments include a combined cable television converter and subliminal message generator, a combine television receiver and subliminal message generator and a computer capable of presenting subliminal messages. SOURCE: Judy Wall, Mike Coyle and Jan Wiesemann. Paranoia Magazine Issue 24 Fall 2000 -Article -'Technology to Your Mind' - By Judy Wall

US PATENT -- 5,409,445 -- BRAIN WAVE SYNCHRONIZER --
A device for inducing the brain waves of a user to assume a predetermined frequency comprising a playback device, stereo earphones, and at least one light mounted on glasses in front of each eye of the user. Three separate control signals are pre-recorded superimposed onto a single control track. This composite signal is read by the playback device and is decomposed into the separate control signals by filters in a decoder/controller. One control signal drives a first LED and another drives a second LED. The number of sinusoids within the first and second control signal determine the light intensity. The third control signal is passed alternately to two speakers, with the switching between the speakers being controlled by the state of the first and second control signal. Conventional earphones and a conventional tape player may be used. The invention may be used to selectively activate the pins of a parallel port on a personal computer, to which are connected the LEDs. Also, the invention may include a mercury tilt switch mounted to the spectacles worn by the user to determine if he is dozing off and transitioning into the Theta brain wave state. The spectacles have optional peep holes in the lenses.

US PATENT 4,858,612 - HEARING DEVICE --A method and apparatus for simulation of hearing in mammals by introduction of a plurality of microwaves into the region of the auditory cortex is shown and described. A microphone is used to transform sound signals into electrical signals which are in turn analyzed and processed to provide controls for generating a plurality of microwave signals at different frequencies. The multifrequency microwaves are then applied to the brain in the region of the auditory cortex. By this method sounds are perceived by the mammal which are representative of the original sound received by the microphone.

US PATENT 5,159,703 - SILENT SUBLIMINAL PRESENTATION SYSTEM --A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain, typically through the use of loudspeakers, earphones or piezoelectric transducers.

US PATENT FOR BARCODE TATTOO--Method for verifying human identity during electronic sale transactions. A method is presented for facilitating sales transactions by electronic media. A bar code or a design is tattooed on an individual. Before the sales transaction can be consummated, the tattoo is scanned with a scanner. Characteristics about the scanned tattoo are compared to characteristics about other tattoos stored on a computer database in order to verify the identity of the buyer. Once verified, the seller may be authorized to debit the buyer's electronic bank account in order to consummate the transaction. The seller's electronic bank account may be similarly updated.

US PATENT 5,539,705 - ULTRASONIC SPEECH TRANSLATOR AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM--A wireless communication system undetectable by radio frequency methods for converting audio signals, including human voice, to electronic signals in the ultrasonic frequency range, transmitting the ultrasonic signal by way of acoustical pressure waves across a carrier medium, including gases, liquids, or solids, and reconverting the ultrasonic acoustical pressure waves back to the original audio signal. The ultrasonic speech translator and communication system (20) includes an ultrasonic transmitting device (100) and an ultrasonic receiving device (200). The ultrasonic transmitting device (100) accepts as input (115) an audio signal such as human voice input from a microphone (114) or tape deck.

US PATENT 5,868,100 - FENCELESS ANIMAL CONTROL SYSTEM USING GPS LOCATION INFORMATION--A fenceless animal confinement system comprising portable units attached to the animal and including means for receiving GPS signals and for providing stimulation to the animal. The GPS signals are processed to provide location information which is compared to the desired boundary parameters. If the animal has moved outside the desired area, the stimulation means is activated. The signal processing circuitry may be included either within the portable unit or within a separate fixed station.

US PATENT 5,905,461 - GLOBAL POSITIONING SATELLITE TRACKING DEVICE--A global positioning and tracking system for locating one of a person and item of property. The global positioning and tracking system comprises at least one tracking device for connection to the one of the person and item of property including a processing device for determining a location of the tracking device and generating a position signal and a transmitter for transmitting said position signal. The position signal is transmitted to a relay station strategically positioned about a desired monitoring area. The relay station includes a device for receiving the positional signal and determining if the received position signal is a valid signal and a device for relaying the position signal upon determining the position signal is valid to a central monitoring station. The central monitoring station receives the validated positional signal from the relay station and analyzes the position signal for monitoring the position of the tracking device. The system may also include a tracking satellite for receiving the validated position signal from the relay station and re-transmitting the position signal to the central monitoring station when the central monitoring station is located outside the transmission range of the relay station.

US PATENT 5,935,054 - MAGNETIC EXCITATION OF SENSORY RESONANCES--The invention pertains to influencing the nervous system of a subject by a weak externally applied magnetic field with a frequency near 1/2 Hz. In a range of amplitudes, such fields can excite the 1/2 sensory resonance, which is the physiological effect involved in "rocking the baby". The wave form of the stimulating magnetic field is restricted by conditions on the spectral power density, imposed in order to avoid irritating the brain and the risk of kindling. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or arousal, and clinically for the control of tremors, seizures, and emotional disorders.

US PATENT 5,952,600 -ENGINE DISABLING WEAPON-- A non-lethal weapon for disabling an engine such as that of a fleeing car by means of a high voltage discharge that perturbs or destroys the electrical circuits. The transmission of the disabling voltage to the distant target is via two channels of electrically conductive air. The conductive channels are created by multi-photon and collisional ionization within the paths of two beams of coherent (laser) or collimated incoherent ultraviolet radiation directed to the target. A single beam may be used when the high voltage source and the target are grounded. The high-voltage current flows from electrodes at the origin of the beams along the channels of free electrons within them.

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Neptune

Neptune 2 years ago in reply to starsom

Remote Neural Monitoring is already in India. This technology uses individuals electro magnetic field, unique for individual like fingureprint, to remotely read thoughts etc. Read blogs at http://remoteneuralmonitoringindia.blogs...
This technology can be also used to generate unique id of every citizen and then there is no privacy.

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David Moss

David Moss 3 years ago

Aadhaar deleted:-

The wikipedia entry on Aadhaar previously available @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AADHAAR has now been deleted.
That is UIDAI's only response so far, 11 days after publication of ML's article.
In its silent way, perhaps quite an eloquent response ... to delete Aadhaar.

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David Moss

David Moss 3 years ago

It's over a week now since ML published the hard-hitting article above.

ML is a newspaper. Not one of those unmoderated blogs you can find everywhere on the web. A newspaper. ML reports facts. The claims made in this article are sourced. ML provides links to the sources. The reader can check for himself and herself. ML is meticulous. They do not mix opinion and news. This is a news article, it is factual.

ML is a financial newspaper. What is the business case for investment in Aadhaar? Does it stand up to critical review? What are the sensitivities? What are the risks? What is the expected return?

Together, the claims made in this ML article raise questions about the advisability of Aadhaar as an investment. Questions which remain unanswered by the UIDAI.

There has been a dignified response from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. But not a word from the UIDAI.

Indian taxpayers must wonder why.

Why can't the UIDAI, the mighty organisation promising to identify every Indian and bring order, through identity management, where currently there is chaos, answer a few simple questions?

What is so difficult? The UIDAI must have thought about these problems in advance. There can't be any surprises left for them to discover. They wouldn't have started if they couldn't finish. Would they?

They have the staff, the expertise, the budget, the time, the political support, the public relations skills, they have consultants and academic researchers and surely, above all, they have the will and the confidence and the drive and the ambition and the sheer, raw, strength.

And yet ... not a word.

Will this lion roar?

The Indian taxpayer, the man and woman ultimately paying for Aadhaar, it's their money that's being invested, must be wondering.

What am I paying for? Why did I believe the UIDAI? Why did the UIDAI believe the biometrics suppliers? Will Aadhaar be written up in future in the case studies beloved of business schools under the heading "how not to do it"?

What to do, while we wait for the UIDAI to respond? We need something to read.

Previously, ML brought us an article written by three academics. Well worth reading, every word. But we've all read that now.

Here is something to tide us over. This is written by not three, but six academics. It's much shorter. And it tells us that the story of biometrics is a fairy tale, a dangerous one, but a fairy tale nevertheless.

Do you believe in fairies? Perhaps the UIDAI believe in fairies. But do you?

Check back in another week. By which time, surely, UIDAI will have responded.

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David Moss

David Moss 3 years ago

The paper written by Messrs Wayman (San José State University), Possolo (NIST) and Mansfield (NPL) is recognisably high quality scholarship produced by authoritative world class researchers with extensive experience.
Their findings have devastating implications for the investment in biometrics (the machine recognition of human beings) all over the world.
Concentrating on India:
• One implication is that UIDAI’s claim to be able to identify all Aadhaar numberholders uniquely using biometrics only is indefensible to the point of meaninglessness.
• Similarly, UIDAI’s claim to be able to verify people’s identity when they try to claim PDS food, for example, or conduct a bank transaction is also indefensible to the point of meaninglessness.
• Further, UIDAI’s claim that their proof of concept trial gives good reason to proceed with Aadhaar is quite simply false, the trial proves nothing in the opinion of the three writers, it is an irrelevant waste of time and money.
Arguably, Messrs Wayman, Possolo and Mansfield are the highest authorities on biometrics in the world. You will have trouble finding a higher authority. Read their paper for yourselves and then see if you agree with the three bullet points above.
If you do, then for the avoidance of doubt, let’s be clear about this, it follows that UIDAI have raised the expectations of 1,200 million Indians to levels that cannot possibly be satisfied, for want of better words UIDAI are “lying” and the Indian taxpayer is being “cheated” out of billions of dollars. You be the judge.
True or false?
NIST say: “This research paper described above with a NIST coauthor is about how to apply uncertainty measurements to the testing of biometric technologies”. True. And what the paper says is that the uncertainty cannot be measured, there is no point guessing, the biometrics emperor has no clothes.
NIST say: “Such testing has substantially improved the accuracy of biometric technologies over the years”. False. This is the opposite of what the paper says, which is that it is impossible to measure the accuracy of biometric technologies, they are out of statistical control.
NIST say: “The paper discusses how to understand measurement uncertainties so that law enforcement agencies and other users of biometrics can accurately determine the limitations of their systems”. False, for the same reason. The paper identifies 15 or so influencing factors which contribute to the uncertainty of biometrics, there may be more factors, research is continuing, but, for the moment, measurement of the achievements or limitations of biometrics is impossible.
NIST say: “The paper does not say that biometrics are not useful in real world settings”. True, if we all accept that we know what is meant here by “useful”. That is one of many things that the paper does not say. What it does say is that technology tests and scenario tests tell you nothing about how well biometrics will perform in the field and that operational tests measure nothing. It is quite possible to agree with this statement of NIST’s and yet still believe that Aadhaar, on its own terms, is bound to fail, it cannot identify people uniquely and it cannot verify their identity reliably.
NIST say: “It advocates moving beyond yes-and-no answers in the biometrics area to do a better job of carefully understanding and documenting the variables that affect the accuracy of these technologies as they are used in practice”. True. More research is needed and I, for one, heartily support that. But in advance of that research bearing fruit, what the paper says is that no trial results can provide a valid reason to invest in biometrics. In that case the investment in biometrics is unbusinesslike, irresponsible, unscientific and illogical. Instead of being a reasoned investment, it has more the character of an impulse purchase. Governments are not paid to make impulse purchases using taxpayers’ money.
India should thank Messrs Wayman, Possolo and Mansfield for their academic candour which may help to raise the ethical standards of commerce and which may save the country from wasting billions. They should be garlanded and fêted as heroes and friends of India.
Congratulations to the ML digital team
I have emailed NIST with questions about biometrics 14 times since 6 June 2006 without once receiving a response. That includes sending them an advance copy of my paper. My congratulations to ML for eliciting a response at last.

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Gail Porter

Gail Porter 3 years ago


This research paper described above with a NIST coauthor is about how to apply uncertainty measurements to the testing of biometric technologies. Such testing has substantially improved the accuracy of biometric technologies over the years. The paper discusses how to understand measurement uncertainties so that law enforcement agencies and other users of biometrics can accurately determine the limitations of their systems.

The paper does not say that biometrics are not useful in real world settings. It advocates moving beyond yes-and-no answers in the biometrics area to do a better job of carefully understanding and documenting the variables that affect the accuracy of these technologies as they are used in practice.

Gail Porter
Director of Public Affairs
National Institute of Standards and Technology

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