Citizens' Issues
When chocolate isn’t chocolate anymore...

 In the US, one out of every three or four young children are now obese, and generals from the Armed Forces have represented that stricter controls need to be exercised over packaged foods of this sort. Here in India, we have the world’s largest population of diabetics, and much of it is caused by unhealthy eating

Somewhere in the hubris surrounding the Kaun Banega Crorepati (KBC) circus, is a small sub-episode, played out for a short while onscreen—but extremely important all the same. It involves the handing over of a basket full of Cadbury products, important because it is not just one of the bigger sponsors, but also because at no stage does the venerable Amitabh Bachchan say anything about them being chocolates or even mentioning the brand.

This discretion is not accidental. Nor does it happen because the advertiser wants less airtime for her buck. The real reason is not shrouded in mystery but like a bad smell it is simply ignored.

Before one moves in-depth into the local Indian scenario with branded ‘chocolates’, it is important to point out that information from the ministry of food processing is still not very clear on the subject. Whether it has to do with cacao, cocoa solids, cocoa butter or any other combination thereof, it appears that the term ‘chocolate’ can be added on to almost anything sold in India, from slabs to bars to barfees to ice-creams and more, without demur—as long as the ingredients mention something to do with some form of cocoa. Sometimes, not even that.

Of course, in another conversation held “off the record”, this correspondent was told by a senior functionary at the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) that often they follow the US FDA” classifications and standards. That is interesting, because much of the cocoa solids and cocoa butter controversy, in addition to the concept of changing the nomenclature of chemically altered palm oil to give it cocoa butter nomenclature and formulations as well as similarities, started there.

Chatting, separately, with a friend who works on vegetable oil carriers, a specialised sort of sea-going tanker ship which is designed to transport food-grade liquids in bulk across great distances and varying climatic conditions without damaging them, I also came to learn about a palm oil-based product which was now transported in bulk and is being used in lieu of cocoa butter—the main ingredient for most brands of chocolates and chocolate derivatives sold commercially. This sounded interesting—was the ship, then, always afloat in the brilliant aroma of fresh chocolate, certainly something which would match the fresh sea air?

Far from it, I was told—matter of fact, when moving into hotter areas like the Red Sea, the whole ship apparently smelt like cooking oil going bad on a roadside vendors stall off any random highway frying pakodas. Even the heavy oil and diesel fumes were less sickening, as the jokes flowed, after all—add liquor to the stuff in the tanks, and you have a Tia Maria? Food for thought, as we opted for the pink coloured stuff hopefully labelled ‘strawberry’, on the dessert rack.

On the way back home I stopped over at one of those 24x7 convenience stores attached to fuel filling stations, and on a whim and a fancy, asked the attendant to give me a variety of chocolates in the sub-Rs30 range.

With a basket full of ‘chocolates’ from Cadbury's, Nestle, Mars and a couple of other brands, I moved to the check-out counter and re-confirmed from the cashier—these are all chocolates, right? The young man behind the till looked up at me in surprise, then in wonder, and finally took pity and said, ‘of course’—and then added, “Cadbury means chocolate, no?”

How interesting. A story or report is developing, is the thought that went uppermost in my mind as I paid the sizeable bill, there was so much variety. Chocolates are Cadbury, generic, and other brands with similar products in the same shelf are also, thus, chocolates. When I asked the young man why they didn’t have Amul, however, I was told, oh, that’s milk, not chocolate.

But then, Cadbury’s is almost a generic term for chocolates, and asking the sales person at a store for guidance on this is not of much use—anything and everything in the same shelves is, by default, also allegedly chocolate. Somebody will say—the sales person is really not the best person to ask for specific details. Valid point, but who else will you ask at a sales outlet, then? And doesn't that mean something—slightly more lucid labelling, for example?

So now we start with the research part. The retail part has already confused many.

First road-block—you have to buy the stuff. Their websites, full of so much effort and detail for everything else, do not provide full details of what their products are made of. But that’s for the India websites—head for the same product, same company, but European and American websites, and you can get more details than you can handle. Try it. So, take a digital photo of the ‘chocolate’ wrapper, and expand it so that you can read it.

Yes, certainly, the list of ingredients and other important information is provided on the packaging. In an extremely small font size, and with special care to the colours used—what looks like dark blue or black on a purple background, for example. Or golden brown on darker brown... Which makes it almost impossible to read on the packaging, unless you go seeking out magnifying glasses and bright lights—or digitally enhance things.

In some developed countries, it is now a pre-requisite that what is not chocolate is not sold as chocolate. By and large, local variations aside, if it did not have at least 30% by way of cacao, chocolate, cocoa butter or solids, then it could not be called ‘chocolate’. Certain products, like ice-creams claiming to be chocolate or using related words, needed to have a “this is not chocolate” cautionary on the wrappers too.

Next, we start with those popular products which don’t have aspirations towards being called ‘chocolates’, but won’t hesitate in giving themselves airs as well as using confusing buzzwords. Cadbury Oreo, for example, uses the term ‘chocolatey’. What does that mean? If you look closely at the wrapper, you will see that it means that the ‘creme’ part contains refined sugar, vegetable fat and emulsifier. The ‘biscuit’ part, however, does claim to have some cocoa solids—though not enough for even the manufacturers to tell us how much.

Moving on, we take a closer look at the flagship brand from Cadbury, called ‘Dairy Milk’. Gets interesting, because the Rs5 and Rs10 packets containing slabs or éclairs don’t even claim to be chocolates, or have any in them. These are, simply, refined sugar in vegetable fat. But the packaging, font, colours used—even the glasses of white liquid shown that could be milk being poured into the ‘I’ are the same—as with the costlier ‘Dairy Milk’ bar which cost Rs25-Rs30 and more—and have “rich classic milk chocolate” written on them.

Coming up next is something called Galaxy Smooth Milk, manufactured in Dubai, exported and imported by Mars in India—and over-printed with the line “smooth and creamy milk chocolate”, as well as with a strategically placed sticker placed over the ingredients part. This sticker says “no vegetable fat in chocolate”, but when you peel the sticker away carefully, you learn that the non-chocolate part of this product does contain—vegetable oils.

Nestlé’s packaging appears to have their own strategies too. KitKat says that it has crisp wafer fingers covered with ‘chocolayer’. The milk chocolate bar says that they are Swiss chocolate makers since 1904, but the ingredients take you through the usual storyline of going coy about its ingredients—‘nature identical’. Best, of course, is their Milky Bar, sold in the same chocolate shelves—it gives up, doesn’t even claim to have any chocolate in it, and goes into partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Of course, the fonts used and the labelling are deceptively similar to their chocolates, but then, that’s par for the course. 

The ‘chewy’ chocolate bars, they have their own stories—5-Star by Cadbury is “yummy chocolaty”, Bar-One by Nestle is “delicious chocolayer” and Snickers by Mars is “covered in chocolate”. But all of them, without exception, have their share of vegetable fats and oils. Of course, that’s never part of the advertising or marketing strategy. 

Because, simply put, it would not pay to tell buyers the truth. That what they are getting, largely, is chemically altered and modified vegetable oils—especially palm oils. For whatever reason, and one reason is that the process of converting palm oil into cocoa butter brings it very close to the next step where they all end up as industrial plastic sludge, even house flies and blue bottle flies don’t sit on these confectionary item when you unwrap them and put them out on a balcony,

So when and how did cocoa butter morph into something that came out of palm oil? Here’s one of the articles on the subject.

http://www.waset.org/journals/waset/v54/v54-95.pdf

The chemically re-formulated palm oil is just one step away in the world of chemistry from being converted into a form of industrial plastic. Even in this shape, it has many shared properties, for example—flies and other insects won't come near it.

Try it. Get hold of an imported packet of chocolates, sold in Europe or North America. Unwrap them, and put them out on a balcony in plates, along with other plates that have Indian ‘chocolates’ of the sort mentioned as well as cut fruit like bananas. And watch where the flies and other insects head for.

Why don’t the flies head for the Indian ‘chocolates’, the ones with palm oil cocoa butter in them?

If we had to eat sweetened vanaspati mixed with refined sugar, we didn’t need FDI from abroad to come and do it for us, and tell us it was chocolate. Even the worst of local sweet and sweetmeat manufacturers would never have sold us this sort of garbage.

Out there in the US, one out of every three or four young children are now obese, and generals from the Armed Forces have represented that stricter controls need to be exercised over packaged foods of this sort. Here in India, we have the world’s largest population of diabetics, and much of it is caused by unhealthy eating of this sort.

Is it too much to expect from these companies, with their ‘brand values’ and all the rest of it, to be honest about what they are selling?

No wonder Amitabh Bachchan just handed over the package full of Cadbury whatevers. He is now a grandfather, again, and is probably concerned about what that child will eat when she grows up. Certainly not refined sugar in vanaspati.

 

User

COMMENTS

Malegiri Das

4 years ago

An eye opening article sir.. thanks to Veeresh Malik and moneylife for bringing to light such excellent really needed information to its readers.

Sanjay

5 years ago

After going this eye-opener, i posted the URL and message asking about the presence of palm oil in Dairy Milk from Cadbury's website. As expected, got no reply from the. No reply from Nestle also.
But noticed one thing lately. Recently saw Dairy Milk (Rs. 5 and Rs. 10 ones) manufactured in November. They changed the ingredients to omit Palm Oil and Cocoa Butter and now include Cocoa Solids.
Don't whether they have made changes in the wrapper or have the actual contents also changed? No way to figure that out.
No perceptible difference in taste.

tesh

5 years ago

Thanks for writing this. It is encouraging to see others becoming aware of the issues the foreign companies are piling on to India. I lived in US for 10 years and struggled to find good food in the world's richest country.

Those countries have made a fortune in turning their GMO tomatoes into corn syrup ketchup and selling it to their own and our kids.

I would ask you to look into other products that they are pushing into the country and spread the word. Horlicks is another culprit, which they push through doctors as medication supplements to formers that cannot afford the price.

I am an entrepreneur and have been studying cocoa and chocolate over the last three years. In India, 100% of "chocolate" is not really that.

It is waxy mixture of sugar, milk powder, emulsifiers and at times vegetable oils with some cocoa powder (often less than 10%) to give it a brown color. It is sad because real chocolate is actually good for your health in small doses. I could go on about this, but basically the mexicans invented chocolate and they still have hot chocolate in litres everyday and live much longer than americans.

It is an issue for someone like myself that has been in R&D in my lab for making real high quality chocolate that would be in-line with or better than swiss chocolates. This is economically not feasible in india because unfortunately my competitors, which is companies like cadburys/nestle/mars, make big bucks by selling wax for the price of real chocolate as the owners of that company don't live in India and probably don't care as much about the health of the population here.

Any suggestions on how I could get to the right audience/consumers to access my product, because as of now I know that it is only a small percentage of India that would appreciate this and make the effort to purchase?

REPLY

malq

In Reply to tesh 5 years ago

Dear Tesh ji,

Thank you for writing in, and your views as well as information from you appreciated.

I would think that there is a reasonably good sized market increasing rapidly for anything that is good in quality in every locality and town and city in India. People across all social and economic levels will seek out good food even if it sold from a hole in the wall.

Small entrepreneurs can save on marketing and logistical costs down-stream, while being able to achieve economies of scale at the purchase and supply chain end due to evolving realities. The internet is another avenue, though inter-state movement of food products like yours would require special handling.

I would only quote the example of entities like Kayani Bakery/Pune as an example. They keep their raw material and product quality at "excellent", keep the prices of their basic items like bread at below market prices, and have only one outlet.

Likewise, Murthy's chocolates in Pune - family run, single outlet, and what they say is what they sell.

http://www.murthys.com/

Good luck with your efforts in India. There is great potential. The MNCs will realise that they can not keep on selling junk, and there is great space for others.

This is just an idea sharing, nothing more, the effort is obviously yours and there is no fixed cookie cutter method to make dough . . . to mix puns and metaphors.

Regards/VM

p k

6 years ago

Dear Mr Malik

thanks for another informative and relevant article from you.
we are brainwashed into drinking coke with lunch or dinner " family fun" highly irresponsible and unethical on the part of those american comapnies.it seems to be the strategy of making a nation of diabetic and heart patients , to sell alopathic medicines.

chocolat is another classic case where anthing and everyhthing goes.
in india everything is almost negotiable.
i have sent the article to my maximum friends.

REPLY

malq

In Reply to p k 6 years ago

Thank you for writing in PK ji, and thank you even more for spreading the word, power of the consumers!!

The corporates get away with this, murder and more, by twisting rules in what they often refer to as "markets". We need to be a "country" and change this.

Regards/VM

Capt S M Divekar

6 years ago

A very informative article. Are you coming for DRACEA dinner, at Willingdon Club Mumbai tomorrow?

REPLY

malq

In Reply to Capt S M Divekar 6 years ago

Dear Capt. Divekar, thank you for writing in, please do spread the word on these products.

Not attenting DRACEA in Mumbai, am based in Delhi.

rgds/VM

RNandakumar

6 years ago

Thank you Mr.Veeresh. This article is yet another proof of MoneyLife's care towards consumers. May your wonderful services continue. I have already forwarded this article to all my family group to caution them with the dangers of fake chocalates.

REPLY

malq

In Reply to RNandakumar 6 years ago

Dear R. NandaKumar ji . . .

Broadly, what one is trying to get some sort of "this is not chocolate" labelling where "choco-xxxx" kind of words are used, eg: choco-bar, chocozoo, choco-layer, choco-latey, choco-milk" etc One can attempt to achieve this by forcing the authorities as well as get the manufacturers to voluntarily adopt this. The biggest culprit here are Cadbury's, where they use the "Dairy Milk" brand to sell various products, from simple sweetened coloured vanspati/hydrogenated oils in bars to proper chocolates - in other words, riding on an international brand to provide us with inferior goods in India.

Thank you for spreading the word.

rgds/VM

Sanjay

6 years ago

Checked the contents of Amul Chocolate today on its pack. It contains cocoa butter and cocoa powder. Is cocoa butter per se harmful? Or is it a poor substitute of cocoa powder? It didn't specify palm oil.
If one loves chocolates, what other options does one have in indian chocs?

REPLY

malq

In Reply to Sanjay 6 years ago

Dear Sanjay, thank you for writing in.

If you go through the relevant rules and subsequent amendments pertaining to the PFA here:-

http://www.jmc.nic.in/forms/pfaact.pdf

you will observe that it clearly states in A-25.3 that:- ""Chocolate means a homogeneous product obtained by an adequate process of
manufacture from a mixture of one or more of the ingredients, namely, cocoa (cacoa) beans, cocoa (cacoa)nib, cocoa (cacoa)mass, cocoa press cake and cocoa dust (cocoa fines/powder), including fat reduced cocoa powder with or without addition of sugars, cocoa butter, milk solids including milk fat and non-prohibited flavouring agents. The chocolates shall not contain any vegetable fat other than cocoa butter.""

Now, the escape valve here is that the method of "converting" palm oil to cocoa butter brings in a grey area, which the FPA tries to cover here:-


A.10.05—COCOA BUTTER means that fat obtained by expression from the nibs of the beans of
Theobroma cocoa L. It shall be free from other oils and fats, mineral oil and added colours.
It shall conform to the following standards:
Percentage of free fatty acids Not more than 1.5 (calculated as oleic acid)
Iodine value 32 to 42Melting point 29 degree C to 34 degree C
Butyro-refractometer reading at 40 degree C 40.9 degree C to 48.degree C
or
Refractive Index at 40 degree C 1.4530 – 1.4580
Saponification value 185 to 20

+++

So far so good.

+++

Now comes the labelling part, where the manufacturers try to disguise the vegatable oil (non-natural-cocoa butter.) But then, they end up giving away the game in other issues. Take a look at, for example, Kit-Kat, and this judgement:-

http://www.indiankanoon.org/doc/713360/

""The principal ingredients of the product are wafer, sugar, milk powder, wheat flour, cocoa paste, cocoa butter, hydrogenated vegetable oil and process additives. The process of manufacture is in four parts. The wafer is made out of wheat flour, oil and other such goods. A filling made of praline and other substances is sandwiched between layer of such wafers and waffles. The sandwiched wafers are thereafter coated with chocolate manufactured from the cocoa paste, cocoa butter, sugar, so as to completely cover it. The resultant product is thereafter packed.""

Question:- where did the hydrogenated vegetable oil (vanaspati) go? Answer: it went into the "cocoa paste".

+++

In other cases, the "articficial" cocoa butter chemically obtained from palmoil is passed off as cocoa butter, with again some sleight of hand in the contents.

That's been covered in the main article.

+++

Specifically wrt Amul Chocolates, I have not had the time to get the complete range, but this is what their website says:-

http://www.amul.com/products/chocolate.p...

You will observe that they have "chocolates" and something called "chocozoo". The "chocozoo" range contains hydrogenated veg oils (vanaspati). Just like Cadbury's Dairy Milk (5/- and 10/- bars).

+++

More details soon.

rgds/VM



Sanjay

In Reply to malq 6 years ago

Thanks for the detailed reply. As of now, it looks like one should avoid chocolates containing Palm Oil, hydrogenated veg oils.

malq

In Reply to Sanjay 6 years ago

Thanks for writing in, Sanjay - thing is, that using a loophole, chemically altered palm oil is being imported as "cocoa butter", even though it has not been sourced from cocoa (theobroma) as is required. Once this enters the supply chain, it gets disguised as "cocoa butter", and marking on the side of the package become deceptive. Take a closer look at the 10/- packet of Cadbury's Dairy Milk and the costlier packets - and read their contents carefully.

rgds/VM

sunny

6 years ago

Awesome article. Thanks for this relevant information.I am not surprised that this is happening in a country like ours where corruption is a birth right...

REPLY

malq

In Reply to sunny 6 years ago

Thank you for writing in, Sunny, and please help by spreading the article as well as information.

Regards/VM

sunny

In Reply to malq 5 years ago

Will surely do. Please keep writing such good and informative articles...

Sanjay

6 years ago

Really shocking. Used to always wonder why no one stocks Amul chocolates. Their dark chocolates are real good. Nor are they as costly as Cadbury ones.
Sir you seem to cover really relevant topics, really appreciate your efforts and depth you provide.

malq

6 years ago

And a photograph added here:-

http://www.flickr.com/photos/vm2827/6387...

Siemens to invest $50 million in Indian financial services arm

SFS Commercial Finance has also obtained a non-banking financial company license from the Reserve Bank of India

Siemens AG, a global powerhouse in electronics and electrical engineering, operating in the industry, energy and healthcare sectors, said it will invest $50 million in Siemens Financial Services for commercial operations in India.

"Siemens Financial Services (SFS) is rolling out its range of commercial finance solutions to help business and public sector customers in India to invest efficiently, and to maximise growth opportunities in a rapidly developing economy," Siemens Financial Services GmbH chief executive Roland Chalons-Browne said.

We will invest $50 million for setting up Siemens Financial Services, Chalons-Browne said, adding the expansion of its presence in the Indian markets represents a significant milestone for SFS.

SFS Commercial Finance has also obtained a non-banking financial company license from the Reserve Bank of India, its chief executive Sunil Kapoor said.
Siemens research forecast says that capital expenditure in the key Indian markets will be very strong between now and 2020, with the healthcare sector investing over Euro 200 billion (Rs13.2 trillion) industry sector more than Euro 125 billion (Rs8.25 trillion) and utilities sector over Euro 800 billion (Rs52.8 trillion).

User

Force Motors to invest Rs1,000 crore in 2 years

Force Motors expected an overall turnover of Rs3,000 crore in this financial year

Force Motors, which has a manufacturing capacity of one lakh vehicles in Madhya Pradesh, expected an overall turnover of Rs3,000 crore in this financial year.

Pune-based Force Motors plans to invest Rs1,000 crore in the next two years for development of new models.

The company, which has a manufacturing capacity of one lakh vehicles in Madhya Pradesh, expected an overall turnover of Rs3,000 crore in this financial year, Force Motors managing director, Prasan Firodia said, while inaugurating a showroom for its new sports utility vehicle (SUV) 'Force One'.

Talking about Force One, Firodia said that the turbo- charged heart of the SUV, the 2.2 FM tech Engine, beats faster than any other SUV in its segment.
In the early afternoon, Force Motors was trading at around Rs573 per share on the Bombay Stock Exchange, 1.98% down from the previous close.

User

We are listening!

Solve the equation and enter in the Captcha field.
  Loading...
Close

To continue


Please
Sign Up or Sign In
with

Email
Close

To continue


Please
Sign Up or Sign In
with

Email

BUY NOW

The Scam
24 Year Of The Scam: The Perennial Bestseller, reads like a Thriller!
Moneylife Magazine
Fiercely independent and pro-consumer information on personal finance
Stockletters in 3 Flavours
Outstanding research that beats mutual funds year after year
MAS: Complete Online Financial Advisory
(Includes Moneylife Magazine and Lion Stockletter)