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Uttar Pradesh, Bihar have India's youngest population
Uttar Pradesh and Bihars populations have the lowest median ages -- or youngest populations -- in India while Kerala and Tamil Nadu have the highest median ages, according to Census 2011 data, compiled by Bengaluru-based think tank Takshashila Institution.
 
The median age is the age which divides the population into two equal halves, i.e., there are as many people older than the median age as there are people younger than it. A low median age would suggest that a country's population has more young people than older people.
 
The median age in India rose from 22.51 years in 2001 to 24 years in 2011, according to Census data. The median age of India's population will be 37 years in 2050 -- lower than that of China, which will have a median age of 46 years, but higher than Pakistan, which will have a median age of 30.9 -- according to data from the United Nations.
 
There is wide variation within India: Kerala's median age of 31 years is close to Argentina's median age (30.8), and Uttar Pradesh's median age of 20 is similar to Kenya's (18.9).
 
The median age is broadly correlated with the level of development within the state in India. Southern states with a higher per capita income such as Andhra Pradesh (27), Tamil Nadu (29), Karnataka (26) and Kerala (31) and the western states of Maharashtra (26) and Gujarat (25) have higher median ages.
 
Less developed states in the north including Uttar Pradesh (20), Bihar (20), Jharkhand (22), Madhya Pradesh (23) and Rajasthan (22) have lower median ages.
 
In 2026, Uttar Pradesh (26.85), Madhya Pradesh (28.83), Bihar (29.05) and Rajasthan (29.51) will continue to have low median ages, while Kerala (37.67) and Tamil Nadu (37.29) will likely have the highest median ages in the country.
 
Over the next century, 60 per cent of the population increase in India would come from the four states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan while only 22 per cent would come from Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra, according to a 2003 study published by The Economic and Political Weekly.
 
This young population would form India's working-age population, and give India an advantage over countries with a smaller working-age population. But productivity could depend on how states, with the bulk of India's population, improve health and education levels, and provide employment opportunities, according to a 2013 study by Asia and Pacific Policy Studies.
 
In 2011, Bihar had a literacy rate of 63.82 per cent, which was much lower than Tamil Nadu that had a literacy rate of 80.33 per cent.
 
Bihar also had a higher infant mortality rate (number of infant deaths per 1,000 live births) of 44 compared to Tamil Nadu at 22.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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NASA set to reveal 'surprise' find on Jupiter's moon Europa
After claiming that Jupiter's moon Europa has strong evidence for an ocean of liquid water beneath its crust which could host conditions favourable for life, the US space agency is set to announce a "surprise finding".
 
At 2 p.m. EDT (11.30 p.m. India time) on Monday, astronomers will present results from a unique Europa observing campaign that resulted in surprising evidence of activity that may be related to the presence of a subsurface ocean on Europa.
 
The announcement will be made in the presence of Paul Hertz, NASA's Director of astrophysics and William Sparks, astronomer with the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore.
 
After journeying for nearly five years to our solar system's largest planet, NASA's Juno spacecraft has sent back the first images of Jupiter's north pole and the the auroras rippling across its southern pole.
 
The images were taken during the spacecraft's first flyby of the planet with its instruments switched on.
 
Juno successfully executed the first of 36 orbital flybys on August 27 when the spacecraft came about 4,200 km above Jupiter's swirling clouds.
 
The images show storm systems and weather activity unlike anything previously seen on any of our solar system's gas-giant planets, NASA said.
 
"First glimpse of Jupiter's north pole, and it looks like nothing we have seen or imagined before," said Scott Bolton, Principal Investigator of Juno from the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio.
 
"It's bluer in colour up there than other parts of the planet, and there are a lot of storms," Bolton noted.
 
Along with JunoCam snapping pictures during the flyby, all eight of Juno's science instruments were energised and collecting data.
 
The Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM), supplied by the Italian Space Agency, acquired some remarkable images of Jupiter at its north and south polar regions in infrared wavelengths.
 
"JIRAM is getting under Jupiter's skin, giving us our first infrared close-ups of the planet," said Alberto Adriani, JIRAM co-investigator from Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome.
 
"These first infrared views of Jupiter's north and south poles are revealing warm and hot spots that have never been seen before. And while we knew that the first-ever infrared views of Jupiter's south pole could reveal the planet's southern aurora, we were amazed to see it for the first time," Adriani said.
 
The Juno spacecraft was launched on August 5, 2011 from Cape Canaveral, Florida and arrived at Jupiter on July 4, 2016.
 
NASA announced last year that it intends to send a robotic spacecraft, equipped with a suite of scientific instruments, to circle Europa in the 2020s.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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India puts weather satellite SCATSAT-1 into orbit
India on Monday morning successfully put into orbit its own weather satellite SCATSAT-1 in a copy book style.
 
In the second phase of its mission, the rocket will launch seven other satellites - five foreign and two Indian - between 11.25 to 11.28 a.m., in a different orbit.
 
Exactly at 9.12 a.m., the PSLV rocket standing 44.4 metres tall and weighing 320 tonne tore into the morning skies with fierce orange flames at its tail.
 
Gathering speed every second, the rocket raced towards the heavens amidst the cheers of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) officials and the media team assembled at the rocket port here.
 
At the rocket mission control room, Indian space scientists at ISRO were glued to their computer screens watching the rocket escaping the earth's gravitational pull.
 
Seventeen minutes into the flight, the rocket's main cargo, the 371 kg SCATSAT-1 - for ocean and weather related studies - was injected into a 730 km polar sun synchronous orbit.
 
Although SCATSAT-1 is a follow-on mission for Oceansat-2 improvements have been made in the satellite's hardware configuration based on lessons learnt from Oceansat-2 instruments.
 
Also SCATSAT-1's payload has been characterised with the objective of achieving data quality for Climate Data Records, apart from facilitating routine meteorological applications, the ISRO said.
 
It said the SCATSAT-1's scatterometer will provide wind vector data products for weather forecasting, cyclone detection and tracking services to the users.
 
The satellite carries Ku-band scatterometer similar to the one flown onboard Oceansat-2.
 
The mission life of the satellite is five years.
 
The remaining seven satellites will be placed in a 689 km polar orbit later.
 
These seven satellites include five foreign satellites: three from Algeria (Alsat-1B 103kg, Alsat-2B 117kg, Alsat-1N 7kg), and one each from Canada (NLS-19, 8kg) and US (Pathfinder-44kg).
 
The two other Indian satellites are: Pratham (10kg) built by Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay (IIT-B) and Pisat (5.25 kg) from PES University, Bengaluru and its consortium.
 
According to the ISRO, the two Algerian satellites Alsat-1B and Alsat-2B are remote sensing satellites while Alsat-1N is a technology demonstration nano satellite for Algerian students.
 
On the other hand, the US satellite Pathfinder-1 is a commercial high resolution imaging micro satellite while the Canadian NLS-19 satellite is la technology demonstration nano satellite for experimentation in helping to reduce space debris and for tracking commercial aircraft.
 
The IIT-B's satellite Pratham's mission objective is to estimate the total electron count with a resolution of 1km x 1km location grid while Pisat from PES University and its consortium is a nano satellite for remote sensing applications.
 
After slinging SCATSAT-1 into its orbit the rocket's fourth stage will be restarted one hour 22 minutes into the flight and cut off around 20 seconds later.
 
Two hours and 11 minutes into the flight the fourth stage will again be restarted to be cut offAone minute later.
 
Following that in three minutes all the seven satellites will be ejected putting an end to PSLV's longest mission till date.
 
The PSLV rocket is a four stage/engine rocket powered by solid and liquid fuel alternatively.
 
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) director K. Sivan told IANS on Sunday that the long time gap between the cutting off of the engine and its restart was not an issue.
 
Sivan said the first time the multiple burn technology was first tested by ISRO while flying its PSLV rocket on December 16, 2015 and in June 2016, the technology was again demonstrated.
 
About the challenge, Sivan said: "After cutting off the engine, its condition should be brought to such a stage that it could be restarted again. The next challenge is to controlling the engine and bringing it so as to eject the remaining satellites into a different orbit."
 
He said the rocket has GPS aided navigation system so that data generated by the rocket's inertial navigation system and the one provided by the former will be blended so as to erase and errors and to generate a precise data.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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