Citizens' Issues
UP, Bihar, Rajasthan: Worst states for women, J&K catching up
Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Bihar are the worst states for women, an IndiaSpend analysis of social indicators and demographic data of Indian states reveals.
 
Women in these states are among those who are most likely to be aborted as children, have the lowest literacy rates, marry earliest, die most frequently while pregnant, bear the most children, have the most crimes committed against them and are least likely to be employed.
 
As many as 376 million people live in UP, Bihar and Rajasthan - more than the populations of the US and the UK combined.
 
Here are eight indicators we considered from the Sample Registration Survey 2014 - released in June 2016 - the Census 2011 and the National Crime Records Bureau. The three states may not do worst in all indicators individually but collectively, they find the most mention.
 
1. Mean age of females at marriage: Women in West Bengal marry youngest (19.3 years), followed by UP and Rajasthan (19.4 years for both).
 
UP has the largest number of girls married between 10-19 years (2.1 million) in India, followed by West Bengal (1.3 million) and Bihar (1.25 million). One in four women in Rajasthan marries before the legal age of 18, as IndiaSpend previously reported.
 
Being educated helps girls resist early marriage "to a great extent", revealed a 2013 study conducted by Harvard's François Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights. Education also correlates with fewer and healthier children and healthier mothers.
 
2. Maternal mortality rate (MMR): At 27.8, UP has the highest MMR among all Indian states, followed by Rajasthan (23.9) and Bihar/Jharkhand (21.4).
 
In June 2016, the health ministry launched the Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritwa Yojana (Prime Minister safe pregnancy scheme, PMSMY), which will run parallel to the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (Mother child safety programme, JSSK).
 
It aims to provide ante-natal care for 30 million pregnant women on the ninth of every month from a specialist. Where government doctors are not available, those in private practices will join the effort.
 
3. Reproductive span: Women in Uttar Pradesh have India’s longest reproductive spans: 10 years. Since higher reproductive spans correlate with higher fertility rates, Uttar Pradesh women also bear the most children in any state, 4.14, according to Census 2011 data.
 
The reproductive lifespan of UP women is followed by those in Rajasthan (9.2 years) and Bihar (9.1 years), all above the average Indian reproductive span of 6.6 years. 
 
The correlation between reproductive span and high fertility rates holds true for Rajasthan and Bihar too, with rates of 3.99 and 3.97 respectively. The average Indian fertility rate is 3.3.
 
Average births decline with an increase in education levels: The average births for women in India who are graduates and above is 1.9, against 3.8 for women who are illiterate, IndiaSpend reported in May 2016.
 
UP, Rajasthan and Bihar have female literacy and education levels below the Indian norm.
 
4. Average household size, percentage of households of six people or more: Households in UP are India’s largest, an average of 5.6 people, another indication that women bear more children than other states. This also means they have the largest burden of housework.
 
After UP, Rajasthan (5.5) and Jharkhand (5) report India’s largest families.
 
Furthermore, 44% of households in UP have more than six people, followed by Rajasthan (38.8%) and Jammu & Kashmir (34%).
 
5. Crimes against women: As many as 38,467 crimes against women were registered in UP - one every 15 minutes - followed by West Bengal (38,299) and Rajasthan (31,151).
 
However, when it comes to crime rate-crimes per 100,000 population of women - Delhi has the highest rate (169.6), followed by Assam (123.4) and Rajasthan (91.4).
 
UP has a crime rate of 38.4, while Bihar’s rate is 31.3, these seemingly low rates likely due to low reporting of cases and fudged statistics, as IndiaSpend has reported.
 
India reports 26 crimes against women every hour, or one complaint every two minutes, IndiaSpend reported in September 2015.
 
6. Literacy rates: Bihar has India’s lowest female literacy rate of 51% of Bihari women are illiterate, followed by Rajasthan (52.1%), Jharkhand (55.4%) and UP (56.4%), according to the Census 2011.
 
7. Female work-force participation rates: Bihar has the lowest female work-force participation rate (FWPR), with only 90 per 1,000 women employed. UP has a FWPR of 253 while Rajasthan has a rate of 453, higher than UP, Bihar and the national average of 331. 
 
If as many women as men worked outside the home, India’s $2 trillion (Rs134 lakh crore) gross domestic product (GDP) would increase by 27%, IndiaSpend reported in March 2016.
 
8. Child sex ratio (CSR): At 834, Haryana has India’s worst child sex ratio, the number of females per thousand males in the age group 0-6, followed by Punjab (846) and Jammu & Kashmir (862).
 
At 888, Rajasthan has India’s fifth-worst child sex ratio.
 
UP is not among the five states with the worst CSRs, but its 902 is lower than the national average of 918; Bihar performs considerably better with a ratio of 935.
 
Apart from UP, Bihar and Rajasthan, a closer look at the data reveals that two indicators of female emancipation for Jammu & Kashmir (J&K) are worsening.
 
For instance, J&K is among the worst five states in average household size, percentage of households with families of six people or larger, child sex ratio, literacy rate and female work-force participation rate. Of these, the child sex ratio and female work-force participation rate have worsened since 2001, while the other indicators have improved.
 
J&K is the only state, apart from Rajasthan, which saw an absolute decline in CSR over 10 years to 2011; the CSR declined from 941 to 862, which means fewer girls are being born. Since maternal and child mortality has improved since 2001, it can only mean that girls are being aborted.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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Talks with managements fail; bank workers to strike work on July 12, 13
Bank employees are preparing to strike work on Tuesday and Wednesday after talks between their representatives and bank managements failed on Friday, C.H. Venkatachalam, a union leader, said on Saturday.
 
The managements "made no concrete proposal" to the employees who have been opposing the proposed merger of the State Bank of India (SBI) with its associate banks as also privatisation of the IDBI Bank, Venkatachalam, the General Secretary of the All India Bank Employees' Association (AIBEA), said in a statement.
 
The talks were convened by the Chief Labour Commissioner of the central government in his office in New Delhi on Friday.
 
Officials of the Department of Financial Services, the Indian Banks' Association (IBA) and five associate banks of the SBI, and the union leaders attended the meeting.
 
Venkatachalam said the union leaders stated at the meeting that instead of taking stringent measures against wilful and deliberate defaulters of bank loans, the government is diverting public attention by such steps as privatisation and consolidation of banks. 
 
The unions also explained as to why the proposed merger of the SBI with its associate banks, the proposed privatisation of IDBI Bank, and other such measures are unwarranted, he said.
 
The unions emphasised that effective measures to recover the alarmingly high levels of bad loans is the real top priority for the banks today, Venkatachalam said.
 
The managements of SBI's associate banks made no concrete proposal except making a statement that they are always willing to talk to the union, he said. 
 
The government has approved the merger of the SBI with its five associate banks -- State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ), State Bank of Travancore (SBT), State Bank of Patiala (SBP), State Bank of Mysore (SBM) and State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH) -- as well as Bharatiya Mahila Bank.
 
The AIBEA had called on about 45,000 employees of the SBI's associate banks to strike work on July 12 to protest against the proposed merger. 
 
The AIBEA had also announced support for another strike planned the next day, on July 13, to be observed by employees of all banks.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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Phiroz Vandrevala quits TCS as director
Indian IT bellwether Tata Consultancy Services Ltd (TCS) on Saturday announced that its non-executive director Phiroz Vandrevala had resigned from the company for personal reasons on Friday.
 
"Phiroz Vandrevala has relinquished the office of non-executive director of the company, due to personal reasons, with effect from July 8, 2016," the global software major said in a regulatory filing on the BSE.
 
As Vice-Chairman and Managing Director of Diligenta, a subsidiary of TCS focused on the life and pensions industry, 63-year-old Vandrevala drove its business strategy and operations worldwide.
 
"The TCS board thanked Vandrevala for his contribution during his tenure on the board since 2007," the city-based company said in a statement later.
 
Prior to his leadership role at Diligenta, Vandrevala was the executive director and head of TCS' global corporate affairs.
 
In the banking and financial services sector, Vandrevala was on expert committees of the Reserve Bank of India on policy-making.
 
Vandrevala was also the co-chair of the Indo-British Partnership (IBP) for five years and is a board member of its network.
 
"As former chairman and executive council member of the IT industry's apex body -- National Association of Software Companies, Vandrevala played a prominent role in industry initiatives," the statement added.
 
A qualified chartered accountant, Vandrevala graduated from Kolkata, where he was born in 1953, and worked with consumer goods major ITC Ltd for three years before joining TCS in 1982.
 
In 1989, Vandrevala had set up India operations of the US-based Tandem Corporation before rejoining TCS in 1992.
 
He currently lives in London with his wife Shashi.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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