An educationist and social activist started a mission to help people overcome poverty through education when she was in her 80s. Gopinath Mavinkurve writes about this gritty effort
Rukmabai Tallur, fondly known as ‘ Rukmakka’, embarked on a mission on India’s Republic Day, in 1986. She decided to set up Punyatama Prabhakar Sharma Seva Mandal (PPSSM) in the memory of her brother, a freedom fighter and social activist, who had devoted his entire life to helping the poor. Rukmakka was an activist herself, in the Gandhian tradition. She always wore khadi, led an austere life devoted to education and staunchly believed that spreading literacy would not only help improve the lives of the underprivileged, but also give them respect in society. Since 1940, she had been teaching Hindi at Mumbai’s Seva Sadan in the belief that knowledge of the rashtrabhasha would aid our freedom struggle.
PPSSM was started with 13 members who pooled Rs500 each. Rukmakka herself collected a corpus of Rs2 lakh in the very first year. Although an octogenarian when she established the trust, she went door-to-door collecting funds, clothes, books and uniforms. Even on her 100th birthday (on 8 January 2005), she donated the cash gifts that she received to PPSSM, to help tribal children with special needs. In April 2005, Rukmakka passed away and Shitala Pandit took up her dream project—to construct a residential school for special children.
Ms Pandit had to overcome several obstacles, including rising costs. Two residential schools for the hearing-impaired and mentally-challenged underprivileged children began operations in dilapidated old premises on 7 October 2006. Construction of the school at Igatpuri (Maharashtra), began in February 2007 even before the entire funding was in place. Several donors pitched in and the school was formally inaugurated in July 2009. Today, they have 100 students and a range of facilities including a library and nursery, and rooms for first-aid, physiotherapy, IQ testing, specialised speech therapy and computers.
Interestingly, despite getting an ‘A Grade’ from Maharashtra’s Social Welfare Department, special schools, like the PPSSM’s, do not receive government aid. The monthly expenses of this residential school, including food, clothing, medicines and maintenance for over 100 special students aggregate over Rs2 lakh. PPSSM is funding the entire expenditure from the interest earned on its corpus. The teachers also get a nominal honorarium, instead of a salary. Naturally, PPSSM is constantly striving to increase the corpus to meet rising costs and needs.
What keeps the effort of PPSSM’s committed teachers alive is the fruit of this dedication. In 2012, Nilesh Navle scored 86% in the school leaving examinations and joined an ITI where he stood second amongst normal students. In 2013, Vijay Ghorpade scored 69% in his SSLC examination and went on to obtain an electrical engineering diploma.
Dhanashree Pawar scored 71% and chose to specialise in fashion designing. Several students have also won prizes in inter-school competitions. These achievements are published on PPSSM’s website. The teachers, including the principal, Naval Sonar, have also received well-deserved honours and felicitations.
PPSSM hopes to be able to adopt many more children and help shape their future through education. It is working to build an independent corpus for three separate schemes, so that the work can be sustained with the interest earned. The Shikshan Prabandh, at Rs5,000 per student, takes care of uniforms, books and stationery for one child per year. Anna Prabandh, covers the food expenses for one child for an entire year at Rs6,000; and Shikshak Nidhi, at Rs5,000, supports the corpus from which honorarium is paid to teachers.
PPSSM has not only given these differently-abled children the chance to become self-sufficient but helped make their dreams come true. Donations to PPSSM are eligible for exemption under Section 80G of the Income-tax Act.
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Elementary principle of abiding by orders given by statutory authorities or Courts cannot be defied by anyone, including CBI, the CIC said, while imposing a penalty of Rs5,000 on the PIO. This is 169th in a series of important judgements given by former Central Information Commissioner Shailesh Gandhi that can be used or quoted in an RTI application
The Central Information Commission (CIC), while allowing a complaint, imposed a penalty of Rs5,000 on the Public Information Officer (PIO) of the economic offences wing (EOW) at Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Chennai for failing to comply with the order from the Commission. The CIC had directed to provide information before 20 June 2011, however, the PIO obtained a stay on 13 July 2011.
While giving this judgement on 25 July 2011, Shailesh Gandhi, the then Central Information Commissioner said, "Just as citizens are expected to follow, government agencies and their officers are equally bound to abide by all orders which have the sanction of law. Since the PIO has failed to comply with the order of the Commission, without a valid stay, she is liable to be penalized under Section 20(1) of the Right to Information (RTI) Act for the period between 21 June 2011 and 12 July 2011."
New Delhi resident PC Srivastava, on 6 July 2010, filed a complaint before the CIC contending that the PIO of CBI has not yet supplied the information as per the Commission's order. On 26 May 2011, the CIC had passed an order in the matter of PC Srivastava vs. PIO and SP, EOW, CBI (Chennai) (CIC/SM/A/2011/000309/SG/12557) directing the PIO to provide the information as available on record on queries 5 and 6 to the Complainant before 20 June 2011.
Subsequently, the CIC received a letter dated 20 June 2011 from Srivastava alleging that no information had been furnished by the PIO till date. The CIC registered this letter as complaint in accordance with Section 18(1) of the RTI Act.
Mr Gandhi, the then CIC, said, "From the facts before the Bench, it appeared that the PIO had failed to comply with the order of the CIC dated 26 May 2011 and not provided the requisite information within the time limit specified therein. The denial on the PIO's part in providing the information amounted to wilful disobedience of the Commission's order and raised a reasonable doubt that the denial may be mala fide."
The Bench then decided to initiate an enquiry in the complaint under Section 12(2) of the RTI Act, and summoned the PIO to appear on 25 July 2011.
During the hearing on 25 July 2011, Mr Gandhi noted that Thenmoezhi, the PIO has neither responded to the summons issued by the CIC nor provided any explanation for not furnishing the information to Srivastava in accordance with the Commission's order.
However, Srivastava, the complainant, informed the Bench, that a stay has been obtained subsequently on the CIC order dated 26 May 2011 by CBI- the public authority from the High Court of Delhi on 13 July 2011 in (WP (C) 4810/2011). He also requested the Bench to levy a penalty on the PIO for not providing information by 20 June 2011 as per the CIC order.
Mr Gandhi said, "Since the CIC's order has been stayed by the High Court on 13 July 2011, no order can be issued as regards the disclosure of information. However, the Bench will consider the complainant's demand for a penalty to be imposed on the PIO."
Section 20 (1) of the RTI Act states:
"20. Penalties.- Where the Central Information Commission or the State Information Commission, as the case may be, at the time of deciding any complaint or appeal is of the opinion that the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, has, without any reasonable cause, refused to receive an application for information or has not furnished information within the time specified under sub-section (1) of section 7 or malafidely denied the request for information or knowingly given incorrect, incomplete or misleading information or destroyed information which was the subject of the request or obstructed in any manner in furnishing the information, it shall impose a penalty of two hundred and fifty rupees each day till application is received or information is furnished, so however, the total amount of such penalty shall not exceed twenty five thousand rupees:
Provided that the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be, shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before any penalty is imposed on him:
Provided further that the burden of proving that he acted reasonably and diligently shall be on the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be."
From a plain reading of Section 20(1) of the RTI Act, it appears that the CIC, at the time of deciding any complaint or appeal, must impose a penalty in the following circumstances:
1) Refusal to receive an application for information.
2) Not furnishing information within the time specified under Section 7(1) of the RTI Act.
3) Malafidely denying the request for information or knowingly giving incorrect, incomplete or misleading information or destroying information, which was the subject of the request.
4) Obstructing in any manner in furnishing the information.
All the above are prefaced by the phrase, "without reasonable cause".
"Therefore, Mr Gandhi said, "if complete information is not furnished without any reasonable cause, the Bench, at the time of deciding any complaint or appeal is duty bound to levy a penalty at the rate of Rs250 each day till the information is furnished."
This principle has been relied on by Justice Ravindra Bhat of the High Court of Delhi in Mujibur Rehman vs. CIC in (CWP 3845 of 2007 decided on 28/04/2009). Moreover, as per Section 20(1) of the RTI Act, the PIO shall have to discharge the burden of proving that he acted reasonably and diligently.
Mr Gandhi said, "In the instant case, the order of the CIC dated 26 May 2011 clearly stipulated the date i.e. 20 June 2011 within which the requisite information was required to be provided to the complainant. However, despite its clear order, the Bench noted that the PIO did not provide the information to the complainant within the said date. Stay on the CIC order was obtained only on 13 July 2011. Given the same, it prima facie appears that the PIO has flouted the order of the Commission and not provided the information from 21 June 2011 to 12 July 2011. No explanation whatsoever has been provided by the PIO for not complying with the order of the CIC. The PIO has also failed to respond to the summons issued by the CIC."
The PIO was required to comply with the order of the Bench, unless a stay has been obtained on such order within the time limit mentioned in the order. "In the present matter, the PIO has provided no reasons for disobeying the order of a statutory authority. It is pertinent to mention that departmental procedures and administrative hurdles or exigencies cannot be used as an excuse for disobeying the order of a statutory authority and consequently denying the citizen's fundamental right to information. At the very least the PIO should have approached the Bench before 20 June 2011 and requested for an extension in time giving reasons. However, the PIO neither approached the CIC nor appeared before the Bench on 25 July 2011. Moreover, no written explanations have been submitted by the PIO before the Bench," Mr Gandhi noted.
In this regard, he said, the Bench would like to place reliance on certain pronouncements of the Supreme Court of India. In Prithawi Nath Ram vs. State of Jharkhand & Ors (Appeal (Civil) No. 5024 of 2000), the apex court, in its judgement dated 24 August 2004 observed as follows:
"If any party concerned is aggrieved by the order which in its opinion is wrong or against rules or its implementation is neither practicable nor feasible, it should always either approach to the Court that passed the order or invoke jurisdiction of the Appellate Court. Rightness or wrongness of the order cannot be urged in contempt proceedings. Right or wrong the order has to be obeyed. Flouting an order of the Court would render the party liable for contempt. While dealing with an application for contempt the Court cannot traverse beyond the order, non-compliance of which is alleged. In other words, it cannot say what should not have been done or what should have been done. It cannot traverse beyond the order. It cannot test correctness or otherwise of the order or give additional direction or delete any direction. That would be exercising review jurisdiction while dealing with an application for initiation of contempt proceedings. The same would be impermissible and indefensible." (Emphasis added)
Further, in Prakash Narain Sharma vs. Burma Shell Cooperative Housing (AIR 2002 SC 3062), the Supreme Court has observed that a judicial order, not invalid on its face, must be given effect entailing all consequences, till it is declared void in a duly constituted judicial proceedings. Reliance may also be placed on the observations of Justice SN Variava, in Ghaziabad Development Authority vs Balbir Singh (2004-002- CPJ-0012-SC) case, wherein he stated, “…unless there is a stay obtained from a higher forum, the mere fact of filing an appeal or revision will not entitle a person who is required to pay the penalty to not comply with the order of the lower forum. Even though the person may have filed an appeal or revision, if no stay is obtained or if stay is refused, the order must be complied with. In such cases, the higher forum should, before entertaining such appeal or revision, ensure that the order of the lower forum is first complied with.”
Mr Gandhi said, "The law laid down by the Supreme Court, as described above, is the law of the land and must be abided by all. The CBI is not above this law and in the absence of a stay, should have complied with the order of the CIC. Just as citizens are expected to follow this, government agencies and their officers are equally bound to abide by all orders which have the sanction of law. Without this discipline, no rule of law can prevail. And if a police agency cannot follow this simple principle, it loses the moral authority to ask citizens to abide by its orders."
"The PIO's action is in clear violation of the principles laid down by the Supreme Court. Thenmoezhi, the PIO & SP, EOW, CBI (Chennai) has given no reasonable cause for not providing information for 20 days, before a valid stay was obtained on the Commission's order. Since no reasonable cause has been offered by the PIO for not providing the information from 21 June 2011 to 12 July 2011, i.e. for a period of 20 days, the Bench imposes a penalty on Thenmoezhi, the PIO, under Section 20(1) of the RTI Act at the rate of Rs250 per day of delay, i.e. 20X250 = Rs5,000," the Bench said.
The CIC also directed the director of CBI to recover Rs5,000 from the salary of Thenmoezhi, the PIO and remit the same to the CIC before 10 September 2011.
CENTRAL INFORMATION COMMISSION
Decision No. CIC/SM/C/2011/000782/SG/13656Penalty
Complaint No. CIC/SM/C/2011/000782/SG
Complainant : PC Srivastava,
Respondent : Thenmoezhi,
PIO & SP,
Economic Offences Wing,
Central Bureau of Investigation,
III Floor, A- Wing, Rajaji Bhawan,
Besant Nagar, Chennai- 600090
Having predicted the 2008 financial crash and been involved with the financial sector closely since then the RBI governor surely knows that the West has made consumer financial protection a centrepiece of financial sector regulation. How about setting the ball rolling in that direction in India too?
Raghuram Rajan has been garnering a lot of plaudits and praises for his first speech as governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). However, he failed to mention one of the most important aspects of the banking system, or the entire financial system for that matter: consumer protection.
As a brilliant person who is well versed with the intricacies of finance and banking, he shot to fame when he predicted the financial crisis of 2008, when he knew that US consumers were hard sold cheap mortgages they couldn’t afford. Having realised this, the US government set up Consumer Finance Protection Bureau and the UK government had set up Financial Conduct Authority which will have the power to regulate all providers of financial across different sectors. Even in India Financial Sector Legislative Reforms Committee has suggested exactly the same approach of a special consumer protection agency.
However, it is surprising that he has not mentioned anything about consumer protection or mis-selling which mentioning that banks should expand freely. Mis-selling is far more rampant here than in the US because Indian regulators are often lax and ignorant about many issues plaguing consumers, from hard-selling third-party products to non-transparent banking charges and so on.
Moneylife Foundation has been batting for consumers over the years and has raised several issues on banking, consumer protection and safety of products. With over 23,000 members, it has stumbled upon a wide variety of cases of mis-selling, cheating, some of which are horrifying because they are targeted at senior citizens and women. Unfortunately, the spate of mis-selling over the years has caused Indian investors and savers to lose money and lose trust in the financial system.
If Raghuram Rajan is interested in batting for the Indian investor and saver, if he is interested in restoring the faith of the Indian banking system and get people to trust bankers and financial intermediaries again, then here are the list of issues he can look at, all of which Moneylife has written about over the years:
Mr Rajan may like to know that Banking Code and Standards Board of India was created to enforce ethical and consumer-friendly practices but the code is voluntary. Brilliant, innovative and energetic that he is, we believe that Mr Rajan will have some new thoughts on effective consumer protection in the banking sector too. We wonder when he will start articulating his thoughts in this direction.