After a dull session, neither the bulls nor the bears have the upper hand. Nifty may rally if it trades above 6060 consistently in tomorrow’s session
Today’s stock market trading session was characterised by dull trading, with plenty of see-saw movement. At the end, there were no eventual winners, with the markets finishing flat. Yesterday, we had opined that the Nifty must close above 6,085 for the bulls to regain initiative. This did not happen. The markets opened in the green but immediately started to trend downwards, into the red, with spurts of volatility. This continued till mid-day, when a reversal saw the market rebound and regain momentum to finish the day flat.
The BSE Sensex opened at 20,449 then steadily declined to an intra-day low of 20,348 before a reversal saw the index rebound to an intra-day high of 20,482 before finishing at 20,420 (down 4.76 points or -0.02%). Similarly, Nifty opened at 6,062, hit an intraday low of 6,030 then went up to an intra-day high of 6,074, before finishing at 6,057 (down 2 points, or -0.03%). The indices remained flat on weaker volumes of 52.64 lakh shares being traded.
Indices were mixed today, with some going up and some going down. Auto, Midcap 50 and CNX Metals were relatively strong, finishing up 1%, 0.46% and 0.39% respectively. The losers were CNX IT, CNX Realty and CNX MNC, which were down 0.64%, 0.56% and 0.42% respectively.
Of the 50 stocks on the Nifty, 21 advanced and 29 declined. The top gainers were Tata Motors (2.31%); BPCL (1.89%); Grasim (1.48%); Ultratech Cement (1.15%) and Axis Bank (1.06%). The top losers were JP Associates (-3.05%); Power Grid (-2.18%); Bharti Airtel (-1.54%); DLF (-1.44); NTPC (-1.41).
Of the 1,437 shares on the NSE, 577 closed in the positive, 766 closed in the negative while 94 remained unchanged.
The LIC chairman has said that LIC has invested Rs33,000 crore in capital markets so far in FY14. The Finance Ministry has indicated the possibility of inflation-linked certificates to the tune of Rs10,000 crore in which rates of interest will be 1.5%-2% above the CPI. RBI hopes to issue certificates by end of December.
The global outlook was marked by good economic numbers in the US and Europe, and a surprise rate cut in Thailand. The US markets finished marginally up yesterday. The US November Confidence Index fell to 70.4 from 72.4. The S&P/Case-Schiller Index of home prices rose 13.3% from a year ago, to its highest level since 2006. Similarly, building permits in the US rose 6.2%, to 1.03 million rate, touching its five-year high.
Gold rose 0.77% to $1,251/ounce while oil dipped to $93.30/barrel.
In Europe, UK’s GDP rose 0.8%, matching initial estimates, and is up 1.5% when compared to the same period last year. On the German political front, German Chanceller Merkel’s CDU party reached a coalition agreement with SPD, a socialist-oriented party. At the same time, German economic data showed consumer confidence rose to the highest in more than six years, buoyed by a robust jobs market and solid income expectations.
Meanwhile, in Asia, the Thai central bank cut key rate to 2.25%, in a surprise move. None of the 19 Bloomberg respondents surveyed did not see forecast this change at all. Asian markets were mixed today, with Nikkei dipping 0.42% while Hang Seng rising 0.53%.
Contrary to media reports that said Reserve Bank has directed banks to adopt Aadhaar, the RBI has advised banks to chose either EMV chip and PIN or Aadhaar’s biometric validation as additional factor for authentication and securing the card present payment infrastructure
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has said that banks are free to adopt either Euro pay MasterCard Visa (EMV) chip and Pin technology or Aadhaar acceptance as additional factor of authentication for securing the card present payment infrastructure. However, several mainstream media reported that RBI has asked banks to adopt Aadhaar authentication only.
In a notification, the central bank said, "In respect of cards, not specifically mandated by the Reserve Bank to adopt EMV norms, banks may take a decision whether they should adopt Aadhaar as additional factor of authentication or move to EMV Chip and Pin technology for securing the card present payment infrastructure."
However, the RBI has advised banks to keep their new card present infrastructure enabled to use both EMV chip and PIN and Aadhaar (biometric validation) acceptance. It may be noted that EMV cards are 'smart' cards that have an embedded chip while PIN authentication involves the card-holder to punch in a secret code on the card-swiping machine, for each transaction.
Interestingly, about 90% of the existing point of sales (POS) terminals in the country, managed by 21 acquirers (among them Axis Bank, HDFC Bank and ICICI Bank), can accept EMV chip cards and PIN.
According to a report by a "Working Group on Securing Card Present Transactions" of the RBI, there is a need to put in place a series of measures to strengthen the payments infrastructure and ecosystem in the country. Inferences drawn from case studies clearly indicate the need to have a much stronger authentication mechanism and reiterate the need for a second factor (2FA) for card present transactions.
"In the absence of 2FA for POS transactions there is a possibility of the fraud losses increasing by more than 200% in a single year, in the event of a sharp increase in fraud incidents in the country. There is also a possibility of POS FTS (fraud-to-sales ratio) increasing by around 200 basis points in one year under adverse conditions," the report said.
The report discusses new systems like EMV chip cards with PIN that has been adopted by many countries and enhancing the current magnetic strip devices (MSDs) card system with help from biometric identification.
"Aadhaar (issued by the Unique Identification Authority of India - UIDAI) authentication using biometrics, provides a strong 'Who you are' factor of authentication. This can be combined with a second 'What you have' or 'What you know' factor to achieve strong customer identification at the point of sale."
While the option to use biometrics from the UIDAI database looks good, in practice, due to insufficient feasibility tests, it may not be a viable option. "The working committee considered biometric, or UID, as the second factor in one of the solution sets; however, the decision to adopt this would depend on various factors like the number of UIDs issued to the population which transacts through cards, the error rates, authentication network capability to handle transaction volumes, network capability to handle enhanced transaction size and acquiring infrastructure," the report said.
Moreover, biometric (fingerprint) identification is not foolproof. Especially, in some merchant categories like fuel stations and restaurants, there are execution challenges in adopting PIN or biometric as an additional factor of authentication. In addition, it is well known that finger prints and irises can be faked, and one way to fix that problem could be to use finger-print readers that detect live finger prints, and iris readers that detect live irises.
According to JT D'Souza, who analysed the pilot study conducted by the UIDAI, given the well-known lacunae in our infrastructure and massive demographics, biometrics as an ID will be a guaranteed failure and result in denial of service. He said, "The sum of false acceptance rate and false rejection rate (EER) reveals only part of the problem, which is rejection or acceptance within a short duration of enrolment. The bigger problem is ageing, including health and environment factors, which causes sufficient change to make biometrics completely unusable and requires very frequent re-enrolment."
According to a report in the Economic Times, the UIDAI is pushing for biometric authentication for credit card and ATM transactions, but bankers are reluctant to make changes since technology costs are high. Bankers argue that upgrading every ATM and PoS terminal at thousands of merchant outlets will not come cheap, besides travails and risks of a new technology, says the report.
But aren’t we forgetting something here? ATM with biometrics is not a new idea. It has been tried and discarded as a failure when the ATMs did not authenticate the biometrics of many underprivileged persons (during the pilot launch) and left them without access to their own funds, especially when banks were closed.
The drumbeat for biometric ATMs began in 2005. On 1 December 2006, Citibank had issued a global release about the launch of its biometric ATM with multi-language voice instruction capability. It had tied up with a NGO called Swadhar FinAccess and a microfinance firm for Citibank Pragati for (no frills) accounts. The experiment ended in a whimper.
In 2007, Andhra Bank had launched biometric ATMs and wanted to make the mobile, to cater to the burgeoning microfinance business. Canara Bank set up its first biometric-based ATM at Dharavi, in Mumbai in 2008 with much fanfare.
The ground reality turned out to be completely different. According to information provided by several non-government organisations (NGOs) spreading financial literacy in that area, the biometric ATMs in Dharavi failed from day one. The reason? Working class there, especially housemaids and other labours do not have fingerprints without which they could not operate the ATM!
Not having fingerprints is just one of the issues with the biometric-based ATMs. The more serious issue is the danger it may pose to the user as thieves may stalk and assault the person to gain access. If the item is secured with a biometric device, the damage to the owner could be irreversible, and potentially cost more than the secured property. For example, in 2005, Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a Mercedes-Benz S-Class owner when attempting to steal his car.
In addition, the biometric-based passwords are irreversible. That means it cannot be re-issued in case of loss or theft. If a token or a password is lost or stolen, it can be cancelled and replaced by a newer version. This is not naturally available in biometrics. If someone's face or fingerprint is compromised from a database, it cannot be cancelled or reissued.
Another problem associated with the biometric-based ATM is its cost, both installation and operations. The biometric-based ATMs, as proposed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) that would facilitate use to Aadhaar data, are more costly than the regular card-based ATMs. While consumers are increasingly complaining about reasonableness of bank charges, the banks themselves are lobbying hard with the RBI, claiming that high cost of technology is making each transaction very expensive.
Therefore, while on paper the use of biometrics as 2FA may sound feasible, its uses would be limited at specific locations. In this situation, EMV chip cards and PIN look like the future proof system, despite the higher costs, for card-based transactions. Nevertheless, this may not be the last in payment transaction systems.
In many countries of the world, debit card and/or credit card payment networks have implemented liability shifts. Normally, the card issuer is liable for fraudulent transactions. However, after a liability shift is implemented, if the ATM or merchant's point of sale (PoS) terminal does not support EMV, then the ATM owner or merchant will be liable for the fraudulent transaction.
According to Wikipedia, MasterCard's liability shift between countries within Asia-Pacific region took place on 1 January 2006, whereas Visa's liability shift for PoS took place on 1 October 2010. For ATMs, Visa's liability shift date is 1 October 2015, except in China, India, Japan, and Thailand, where the liability shift will be 1 October 2017.
Tata sons informed RBI and indicted that, its current model best supports the needs of the group’s domestic and overseas strategy
Tata Sons, the holding company of the India’s largest, $100 billion conglomerate Tata Group, has withdrawn its application of new banking licence.
In a release, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) said Tata Sons has withdrawn its application made on 1 July 2013 for new bank licence and the central bank has accepted withdrawal of the application.
“The company has indicated that its current financial services operating model best supports the needs of the Tata group’s domestic and overseas strategy, and provides adequate operating flexibility to its companies, while securing the interests of the group’s diverse stakeholder base,” the release stated.
Tata Sons in a statement said, "Tata Sons remains committed to financial inclusion and believes that the group’s existing financial services footprint uniquely positions it to provide technology excellence and access to India’s hinterland. The company shall continue to monitor developments in this space with great interest and looks forward to participating in the banking sector at an appropriate time".
Earlier last week, speaking at BANCON 2013 in Mumbai, finance minister P Chidambaram had said, “In January 2014 new banking licenses will be issued and I wish it would be given to banks with innovative or different models of banking. We need different kinds of banks to cater to different segments in our country. And I would regret if 'clone' banks are given new licences”.
In February, the RBI released guidelines to allow corporate houses to form banks, part of an effort to expand access to financial services in a country where only about half the population has a bank account. With this effect total 26 corporate firms applied for banking licence including big conglomerates like Aditya Birla Nuvo, Bajaj Finance, L&T Finance, and Reliance Capital.
After Tata’s withdrawal Bank licence application count comes to 25. The winners of banking licence are expected to be announced by the first quarter of 2014.