Stocks
Nifty, Sensex in no man’s land – Weekly closing report
Indices are probably waiting for global cues, which seem positive so far
 
We had mentioned in last week’s closing report that Indian benchmarks, Nifty and Sensex were headed higher subject to dips and that Nifty had bounced off long-term support and might head towards 7,700. Over the week, the major indices ended with marginal gains. The Bank Nifty however, made a small loss. The weekly trends of the major indices of the Indian stock markets are given in the table below:
 
 
On Monday, the stock markets were closed for trading on account of Mahashivaratri.
 
The market indices failed to gain momentum on Tuesday after the long week-end. Sector-wise, the S&P BSE metal index, oil and gas index and basic materials index gained, while banking index went down among the BSE indices. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley on Tuesday said the government was withdrawing one of the much-resisted budget proposals to partially tax withdrawals from the employees' provident fund accounts.
 
The Sensex closed in the green for the sixth consecutive day on Wednesday and Nifty closed above its crucial psychological level of 7,500, powered by buying in capital goods, realty, power and banking shares. In the early part of the day, there was profit taking in metal stocks after last week's rally. However, late buying in blue-chip stocks such as Reliance Industries, Larsen & Toubro, Infosys and HDFC Bank helped the indices recover from the day’s lows. For about a week now, the investors in the Indian stock markets appear to have been receptive to FM Jaitley on his budget proposals, and the major indices have been on an upswing.
 
The Supreme Court on Wednesday issued notice to beleaguered liquor baron Vijay Mallya on a plea by a consortium of 17 banks led by the SBI seeking his personal appearance before it along with his passport as it was told that Mallya has already left the country. The Supreme Court case is making waves in the banking industry, which is over-burdened with non-performing assets, due to default in repayment by many borrowers. Bank Nifty rose 0.88% on the NSE to close at 15,279.05.
 
On Thursday, snapping six consecutive sessions' rally, key Indian equity market indices ended in the red. The 100-scrip and 200-scrip BSE indices were lower by 0.62% and 0.58%, respectively. The mid-cap index was lower by 0.32% and small-cap stocks were lower by 0.18%. In Thursday's trade, selling pressure was seen in capital goods, energy, IT and oil and gas sectors. Sector-wise, the S&P BSE capital goods index dropped by 1.70%, energy index fell by 1.56%, IT index slipped by 1.33% and oil and gas index went down by 1.05%. Foreign institutional investors' continued interest in equities ensured that falls were limited, despite the volatility that also saw profit booking early in the day. However, more stocks were seen declining in NSE, when compared to those that advanced. On Friday, the major indices made a little progress over Thursday’s close and the indices closed marginally higher.  The US and European markets were strong, though, after the European Central Bank announced a major monetary easing programme. This could support the Indian markets next week.

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National Income data does not cover technological advances
National income statistics measure what the producers get, which does not capture the entire value created. Estimation of consumers’ surplus remains elusive despite being very significant in value despite technological advances
 
It has become a cliché to say that change is the new normal. In the 1920s, Joseph Schumpeter had famously talked about ‘creative destruction’ being the distinctive feature of capitalism. Alvin Toffler had, in his book, The Future Shock, foreseen a spurt in technological advances and its impact on human behavior. It would be safe to say that even they would have found it hard to believe the disruption technology is causing these days. Established ways of the society are getting increasingly disrupted whether it is processes, behaviour or relationships between people. Nothing seems sacrosanct anymore. 
 
This technological change apparently does not seem to be impacting income and productivity positively. Annual global growth rate has declined by more than a percentage over the last decade. Widespread gloom about the future prospects of the global economy continues. Even specific studies on productivity seem to reveal a very pessimistic picture. Research which was undertaken at the Economic Research Department of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco shows productivity growth to be decelerating. How does one reconcile the contrasting picture of rapid, disruptive pace of technological change and apparent low growth in productivity?
 
Economists have been the butt of jokes for as long as one can remember. They never seem to agree on anything. It is said that if you meet two economists, you get three opinions. Not many people have faith in statistics on national income and inflation. Confronted with skyrocketing prices of onions, followed by a similar trajectory in other essential prices, it is natural for people to disbelieve statistics showing that inflation has moderated.
 
National income statistics are based on the attributes of the old economy, having been designed for times when physical products and manufacturing were predominant. Even in those times, there were anomalies in the methodology. For instance, national income comprises only those products whose value can be measured and which are traded for such value. Thus, the work done by a housewife is ignored, leading  well-known economist John Hick to quip that you could actually reduce national income by marrying your maid servant!
 
Goods and services are distinguished by economists on the basis of two attributes like being ‘rival and excludible’. A rival product is one whose consumption by one consumer prevents simultaneous consumption by others. Technically, a product is considered non-rival if, for any level of production, the cost of providing it to an additional customer is zero.
 
A product is excludable if the supplier of that product can prevent people who do not pay, from consuming it. These attributes enable producers to charge a fair price for rival and excludible goods.
 
Many of the services today are neither rival nor excludible. Their distribution is easy and the use spreads to large numbers quite rapidly. Witness how easy and rapid was the spread of mobiles, internet, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp. However, producers find it difficult to monetize this distribution and most of these services are either free or priced low. While these services add tremendous value and in general, make the economy more productive, economic statistics are not geared towards incorporating such value addition. It is a challenge for economists to devise ways to incorporate such services in their income and productivity calculations.
 
Increasing importance of services in the economy presents challenges for statisticians since services are difficult to define, measure and value. Nature of costing is also very different. Physical products usually have a high marginal cost (high raw material and labour inputs) while services especially new age services, are characterised by large fixed cost in terms of development, technology and operations. But, the marginal cost of providing the service to an additional customer is extremely low. Microsoft spent a huge amount in developing the Windows package. Its cost in providing Windows to an additional customer is negligible. Mobile telecom companies such as Bharati Airtel had to invest heavily in technology, spectrum purchase, operations and customer acquisition. Having done so, the cost of providing services to an additional customer is miniscule. 
 
Competition and cost structure ensures that pricing of such services is based on marginal cost, which does not capture value addition or customer satisfaction in the real sense. This has implications for estimation of increase in productivity. Many customers would be willing to pay much higher price for such services since they derive substantially higher satisfaction. In economic terms, we can say that consumer surplus is a significant proportion of the total value created. National income statistics measure what the producers get, which does not capture the entire value created. Estimation of consumers’ surplus remains elusive despite being very significant in value.
 
Let us consider the telecommunication sector in India. At the time of economic liberalization in 1991, the price of one call was Rs1.25, which inflation adjusted in today’s value is approximately Rs7.45. The utility or the value created by a telephone call has obviously not reduced. However, since the price of a call has come down, owing to technological developments and competitive pressures, the GDP calculation now is done at lower prices prevailing currently, distorting the estimation.
 
This is however nothing new and estimation of gains due to productivity have always been a problem. When the computer age dawned and improved efficiency significantly, the statistics failed to show any increase in productivity, prompting Noble laureate Robert Solow to quip that the computer age was “everywhere but in the productivity statistics.”
 
The western world has largely succeeded in satisfying day-to-day basic needs of its people. But, the needs and wants have continued to expand even if the struggle for survival is over. In some sense, these needs and wants are what Maslow has termed higher order needs. Such needs provide satisfaction in different ways and capturing the value of such satisfaction necessitates a quantum jump in the ability of statisticians and the way they capture such value propositions.
 
(Sunil Mahajan, a financial consultant and teacher, has over three decades experience in the corporate sector, consultancy and academics.)

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COMMENTS

Chandragupta Acharya

12 months ago

Excellent thought provoking article. Thanks

17 Indians to explore Antarctica for climate change impact
Bengaluru : About 150 explorers from 26 countries, including 17 young Indians, are sailing to Antarctica on Sunday on a 13-day expedition to study the impact of climate change due to global warming.
 
"The largest group of 150 men and women, including 17 from India, will cruise in a ship from Ushuaia, the world's southernmost town in Argentina, to the Antarctica Peninsula for exploring the icy continent around the South Pole," expedition coordinator Samantha Van Ruiten told IANS.
 
The eight women and nine men from India are students, techies, researchers, executives and members of non-government organisations (NGOs), with a common cause to save the planet from ill-effects of greenhouse emissions, urbanisation, over consumption and changing lifestyle.
 
"Antarctica provides an ideal setting for the expedition to know first-hand the fallout of climate change and feel how temperature rises on its icy landscape due to greenhouse gases and other emissions from chimneys, highways, fossil fuels and waste in developed and developing countries across other continents," Samantha said ahead of the mission under the "Leadership on the Edge" programme.
 
Though there was an overwhelming response to the 2041 Foundation's call to embark on the ecological mission, only 150 were selected keeping in view logistics and resources, health and environmental concerns over the flora and fauna of the 14 million km uninhabited and ice-covered landmass below South America.
 
The first expedition in 2003 had just 42 adventurers from 18 countries and the 2015 expedition 110 members from 22 countries worldwide.
 
"I am excited to visit Antarctica though far away, coldest, driest and windiest in the southern hemisphere, as it gives me an opportunity to explore the unknown continent and study the impact of global warming on its fragile ecosystem," 28-year-old D. Chandrika, a member of the International Antarctica Expedition (IAE 2016), told IANS from Pune.
 
Headed by veteran polar explorer and renowned British environmentalist Robert Swan and hosted by the US-based Foundation, the expedition from March 13 to 25 will focus on promoting renewable energy sources, environmental sustainability and climate preservation.
 
"As promotion of green energy and clean technologies worldwide is a major objective of this expedition, our assessment of the impact will make nations combat climate change and reduce global warming to protect the environment by framing sound policies," Chandrika, an astrophysicist and India officer of University of Gottingen in Germany, asserted.
 
Swan, 60, an OBE (Order of British Empire) and first person to set foot on North Pole and South Pole in 1989, had set up the 2041 Foundation to preserve Antarctica by promoting recycling, renewable energy and sustainability to combat affects of climate change.
 
The Foundation was set up in 1991 when the protocol on environment protection issued a moratorium banning drilling and mining in Antarctica. The 50-year protocol is due for review in 2041, as per the Antarctica Treaty System international agreement signed in 1959 to govern human activity in the continent.
 
"The 2041 mission is to build on Swan's dedication by informing, engaging and inspiring generation of leaders to take responsibility, lead sustainable life, contribute to policy development and do what it takes to preserve the last great wilderness on earth," Samantha pointed out.
 
Rohan Sood, 26, a techie from Kangra in Himachal Pradesh, is raring to skate and trek on the icy terrain for a once-in-a-lifetime experience at the world's bottom where average temperatures hover around minus 10 to minus 5 degrees Celsius in six months of summer from October to March and sink lower to minus 20 to minus 35 degrees Celsius in six months of winter from April to September.
 
"There is an urgent need to create global awareness on saving our planet from the dangers of global warming and climate change by conserving resources, using renewable energy and going green with eco-friendly materials," Sood told IANS.
 
Though based in Dubai as an engineer with Japanese industrial electronics product firm Anritsu, Sood is a globe trotter, having visited 18 countries across five continents and worked on community projects in Sri Lanka and Slovenia.
 
"It's humbling to be on the expedition to protect the environment and preserve the fragile eco-system for the benefit of humankind. As saving the earth from global warming and climate change is a responsibility of everyone and every nation, we need to work together for sustaining life itself," Sood noted.
 
Hyderabad-based Aarti Rao, 25, a member of the Third Pole Foundation Swan mentored in 2013 at Leh as part of the Global Himalayan Expedition, is upbeat on flying across three continents to reach the planet's edge for a lifetime adventure.
 
"I was inspired to join the expedition by Swan and other explorers like Robert Scott to be the change we want to bring about in families, companies, communities and countries. It's time for action in policy development, sustainable business and designing future technologies," Rao, an engineering graduate, told IANS.
 
According to a British survey, Antarctica has 90 percent of the earth's ice and 70 percent of fresh water, thanks to an underwater torrent of one trillion tonnes that develops in the Weddell Sea every hour. The mass of salty brine formed by freezing of the ocean floor set off a global current system.
 
"Our expedition creates ambassadors for education, environment and sustainability across the globe. To protect Antarctica and the rest of our planet, we must inspire leaders to return home and create change at personal, community and corporate levels and beyond," Samantha added.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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