Leisure, Lifestyle & Wellness
Medicine Prices -Part1: Pricing of Pharmaceutical Drugs in India
India has been effective in reining in the pricing of essential medicines. However, pharma companies follow pricing of developed countries for selling patented drugs, which make them significantly expensive in India
The Indian pharmaceutical industry, driven by knowledge, skills, cost efficient manufacturing base and high quality standards has witnessed a rapid growth over the last couple of years. The industry in India is the world's 3rd largest in terms of volume and stands 14th in terms of value. The lower rank in value is due to the fact that prices of Indian medicines are amongst the lowest in the world. However, despite this the medicine costs continue to be an important component in overall healthcare expenditure in the country. The majority of pharmaceutical expenses are borne by individuals in India as opposed reimbursement of pharmaceutical products by state or private insurance companies in developed countries. In this regard, it is imperative for the government to have a mechanism to make the pricing of essential drugs fair in India.
Price control over drugs was first introduced in the country after Chinese aggression with the Promulgation of the Drugs Order 1962 (Display of prices) and Drugs Order 1963 (Control of Prices).  With these orders, the prices of drugs were frozen from 1st April 1963. Thereafter, a series of price control regimes were notified through various orders in the country from time to time based on different principles, in which the span of control of prices as well as the nature of control of prices varied from order to order.
The government is seized with the goal of enabling industry growth whilst balancing the declared objective of providing better healthcare including making available essential medicines at reasonable prices to all. To accomplish the stated goal of providing affordable medicines, government enunciated “National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Policy 2012” (NPPA 2012).
The National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Policy seeks to limit itself to objective of promulgating the principles for pricing of Essential Drugs as laid down in the “National List of Essential Medicines – 2011” declared by Ministry of Health.

Key Principles of National Pharmaceutical Pricing Policy 2012


Success Story of NPPA so far

The reduction in prices has been cheered by end-users who have seen the prices fall by a significant amount in some cases. In response to a query in parliament earlier this year, the Minister of State for Chemicals and Fertilizers shared the following statistics on price reductions for medicines.
Total Medicines to be covered under DPCO 2013 for price control: 628 medicines
Ceiling price fixed: 509 medicines

Price reduction for 509 medicines  

Clearly, the introduction of price controls has served their purpose in benefiting the patients and will help save hundreds of crores of every year.

Pricing of Drugs not included in NLEM:

The pharmaceutical companies (generic/innovator) are free to price drugs not included in NLEM based on their own commercial assessment.
However under Paragraph 19 of DPCO, “Government may, in case of extra-ordinary circumstances, if it considers necessary so to do in public interest, fix the ceiling price or retail price of any drug for such period, as it may deem fit and where the ceiling price or retail price of the drug is already fixed and notified, the Government may allow an increase or decrease in the ceiling price or the retail price, as the case may be, irrespective of annual wholesale price index for that year”.
The NPPA made a bold move in July 2014 to cap the prices of 108 drugs which were not included in NLEM. These drugs were for treating cardiovascular ailments, diabetes and HIV. This move was strongly opposed by pharmaceutical industry and due to intense pressure from pharmaceutical companies, the government subsequently withdrew guidelines for price control issued under Para 19 of the Drug Prices Control Order for drugs outside NLEM. This was a huge blow to efforts of NPPA/ government to cover drugs outside NLEM in the interest of public at large.

Pricing of Patented Drugs in India

As we have seen above, the government has been effective in reining in the pricing of essential medicines which has benefited the Indian masses. However, most of the recently launched patented drugs do not fall under the ambit of NPPA as the drugs are not a part of NLEM. Thus the innovator companies are free to price the patented products in the market as per their own commercial objectives and in most cases the pricing of patented products in India follows the pricing in developed countries, which makes these drugs significantly expensive than existing standards of care in India.
Under the DPCO Order of July 2014, wherein 108 drugs not included in NLEM were covered; the list also included a patented drug i.e Sitagliptin by Merck, the price of which was brought down marginally from Rs42.7 to Rs41.8 per tablet. While the reduction was in no way meaningful, it was a step in the right direction to bring in innovative drugs as well under the ambit of NPPA. However, there were questions also raised on process to decide the price of innovator drug in India. As mentioned earlier, the DPCO order of July 2014 was subsequently withdrawn and an opportunity to cover patented drugs under ambit of NPPA was lost.
While there is no clear pathway in India to decide the pricing of patented drugs based on incremental efficacy/benefit of patented drug vs existing standard of care, western countries are now closely assessing the incremental health benefits of a new drug before deciding on the pricing of a newly launched drug. This is important as governments reimburse the pharmaceutical expenses in many western countries and with shrinking healthcare budgets, payers in these countries assess the benefits outcome data before deciding on the reimbursement price of a newly launched drug.
In the next part, we will take a closer look at the pricing approval system in Germany wherein the country has adopted new guidelines to decide on pricing of new drugs and we will share with you an example of a diabetes drug that has been withdrawn from German market by an innovator company as it could not get the desired pricing (as they could not prove added benefit over existing treatment) but is selling like hot cakes in India. Can the Indian government take a lesson from Germany here to bring innovator drugs?
(Sandeep Khurana is an independent consultant and researcher. Views expressed here are personal. He can be reached at his twitter Id @IQnEQ)




2 years ago

I do not think that this mess of patented drug pricing vs. the industrial growth visa-vis the corrupt practices of Doctors in collusion with the pharma companies, the easy solution to me is le the patients in general go to Chemists or Govt. designate stores for Generic Medicines "AAUSH" etc. and ask for the GENERIC medicines which are equally reliable and equivalent to these patented drugs and also made as BRANDS. They should just ensure that the Generic equivalent contain same combination of types of basic drug in the same proportion as the patented medicines have.
Now a days, there are many such Public spirited Chemists who are offering and publicizing this facility at 20 to 80 percent discount of the price of the patented drug .
Earlier due to cost of Patented medicines my monthly quota used to cost me Rs. 1500/- .Now since I adopted for the Generic brands, my cost ahs come down to less than Rs. 600 p.m.
Herein below I paste a scanned copy of such "Offer" pamphlet for the information of others.
( Sorry in the comment there is no provision for attaching or pasting any scanned photo )

Prakash Bhate

2 years ago

Extending the logic of 'drug prices in India are amongst the lowest in the world' a loaf of bread costs about a dollar in the US. In India it costs Rs 30. Therefore, food is cheaper in India than in the US. Really?

Deepak SB

2 years ago

सभी ईमानदार डॉक्टर्स से क्षमा सहित
आपके पिता जी को "हार्ट अटैक" हो गया...
डॉक्टर कहता है Streptokinase इंजेक्शन ले के आओ...
9000 रु का... इंजेक्शन की असली कीमत 700 - 900 रु के बीच है... पर उसपे MRP 9000 का है।
आप क्या करेंगे??
आपके बेटे को टाइफाइड हो गया...
डॉक्टर ने लिख दिया कुल 14 Monocef लगेंगे।
होलसेल दाम 25रु है. अस्पताल का केमिस्ट आपको 53 रु में देता है...
आप क्या करेंगे??
आपकी माँ की किडनी फेल हो गयी है...
हर तीसरे दिन Dialysis होता है...
Dialysis के बाद एक इंजेक्शन लगता है (नाम मुझे मालूम नहीं)
MRP शायद 1800 रु है।
आप सोचते हैं की बाज़ार से होलसेल मार्किट से ले लेता हूँ।
पूरा हिन्दुस्तान आप खोज मारते हैं, कही नहीं मिलता... क्यों?
कम्पनी सिर्फ और सिर्फ डॉक्टर को सप्लाई देती है।
इंजेक्शन की असली कीमत 500 है पर डॉक्टर अपने अस्पताल में MRP पे यानि 1800 में देता है...
आप क्या करेंगे ??
आपके बेटे को इन्फेक्शन हो गया है...
डॉक्टर ने जो Antibiotic लिखी वो 540 रु का एक पत्ता है.
वही salt किसी दूसरी कम्पनी का 150 का है और जेनेरिक 45 रु का...
पर केमिस्ट आपको मना कर देता है... नहीं जेनेरिक हम रखते ही नहीं, दूसरी कम्पनी की देंगे नहीं...
वही देंगे जो डॉक्टर साहब ने लिखी है... यानी 540 वाली?
आप क्या करेंगे??
बाज़ार में Ultrasound 750 रु में होता है...
चैरिटेबल डिस्पेंसरी 240 रु में करती है।
750 में डॉक्टर का कमीशन 300 रु है।
MRI में डॉक्टर का कमीशन 2000 से 3000 के बीच है।
डॉक्टर और अस्पतालों की ये लूट, ये नंगा नाच बेधड़क बेखौफ्फ़ देश में चल रहा है।
Pharmaceutical कम्पनियों की lobby इतनी मज़बूत है की उसने देश को सीधे सीधे बंधक बना रखा है।
स्वास्थय मंत्रालय और सरकार एकदम लाचार है।
डॉक्टर्स और दवा कम्पनियां मिली हुई हैं।
दोनों मिल के सरकार को ब्लैकमेल करते हैं...
सरकार पूरी तरह लाचार है? या नकारा? नपुंसक ?
यक्ष प्रश्न... मीडिया दिन रात क्या दिखाता है
लाल किताब बेचता है,
समोसे के साथ बाबा जी की हरी चटनी,
सास बहू और साज़िश,
सावधान, क्राइम रिपोर्ट,
राखी सावंत, Bigboss,
Cricketar की Girl friend,
बिना ड्राईवर की कार,
गड्ढे में गिरा प्रिंस...
सब दिखाता है...
पर Doctors, Hospitals और Pharmaceutical कम्पनियों की ये लूट क्यों नहीं दिखाता?
मीडिया नहीं दिखाएगा तो कौन दिखाएगा??
मेडिकल lobby की दादागिरी कैसे रुकेगी??
इस lobby ने सरकार को लाचार कर रखा है।
media क्यों चुप है?
क्या मीडिया को भी खरीद लिया है फार्म कंपनी ने??
2000 रु मांगने वाले ऑटो वाले को तो आप कालर पकड़ के मारेंगे चार झापड़...
डॉक्टर साहब का क्या करेंगे??

Vijay Bapat

2 years ago

The article does not really give a true picture of the Indian pharma industry, nor does it critically examine the role of NPPA and the controlling Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilisers.

Although drug prices in India are considerably lower than the West, DPCO is a joke perpetrated on the gullible society.

Email anxiety new health hazard for young Indian professionals
The habit of checking e-mails every 10 minutes or so caused her sleeplessness, anxiety and lack of concentration in family affairs
Thirty-five-year-old Shikha Girgla, a Delhi-based brand consultant and a happy-go-lucky personality for her peers, never thought that shifting office emails to her smartphone will reach a stage where she will require medical attention.
The habit of checking e-mails every 10 minutes or so caused her sleeplessness, anxiety and lack of concentration in family affairs. After much deliberation and counselling, she finally decided to deactivate office emails as soon as she reached home. Today, Girgla feels much better and in control of her life.
Like Girgla, if you too can't avoid responding to work or client emails after every few minutes, you may be suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder that is debilitating and needs immediate intervention, experts say.
With smartphone use on a rise, email stress has become a new health hazard for young Indian professionals.
"Besides the immediate impact on physical health, excessive dependence on technology like checking emails every few minutes is likely to lead to poor lifestyle choices, disturbed sleep, a source of distraction and social alienation," Dr Samir Parikh, director of mental health and behavioural sciences at Fortis Hospital in New Delhi, told IANS.
With the blurring of lines dividing work from home, individuals are being more prone to have unclear boundaries which is likely to contribute towards increasing stress levels and intermingling of roles, thereby having an adverse impact professionally, personally as well as in social aspects.
Earlier, workplace issues would mostly be encountered when the employee was physically present at the workplace.
"Now, because of instant communication, not only can he be sent an email at any time, he is also held accountable by superiors to respond to it as soon as possible," rues Dr Ajit Dandekar, head (department of psychiatry) at Nanavati Hospital in Vile Parle, Mumbai.
Young professionals are lining up at his clinic with complaints of insomnia, anxiety and insecurity -- at the root of which lies the unhealthy work culture.
Constantly hounded by work communication, the stress is clearly visible on their faces.
"In recent years, I have counselled several young professionals suffering from an obsessive need to check email every few minutes at the cost of their sleep and general health," Dandekar said. He said this was also true for self-employed professionals.
Having emails accessible to us at one click can be used as a major advantage as it saves time, energy and also improves connectivity. At the same time, an excessive dependence could be aggravating.
"If an individual develops such a dependency, having the need to constantly check for emails regularly, this tendency could be manifested in the form of an anxiety, which would be hampering the individual's personal, social as well as occupational functioning," explains Dr Parikh.
According to a study released by the apex trade association Assocham in April this year, over 42 percent of employees in the Indian private sector suffer from depression or general anxiety disorder due to demanding schedules, high stress levels and performance-related perquisites at work.
Delhi had the highest number of such employees, followed by Bengaluru, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Chandigarh, Hyderabad and Pune.
According to Dr Manish Jain, psychiatrist at BLK Super Speciality Hospital, checking e-mails frequently has become a new trigger of anxiety for the working professionals who come to see him quite often nowadays.
"A new deadline or task can just be communicated through mail which may become a trigger for anxiety attacks for some," he said.
If one's work environment is extremely demanding, there is a greater likelihood of a work-life imbalance. To add to this, an excessive dependence on technology could definitely blur the demarcation between work and home, thereby leading to an overflow of stress into various aspects of the individual's functioning.
Such an anxiety is likely to interfere with the person's cognitive as well as social functioning. "People with mild pre-existing anxiety traits are at a higher risk," Dr Jain stresses.
Sleep deprivation and long-standing unattended stress are known to disturb endocrine functions and biological rhythm. This leads to various psychological and psychosomatic disorders such as depression and anxiety.
Self-discipline is the key when it comes to dealing with work communication.
Learn to say a polite but firm no when the demand on your time and body or the expectation is unreasonable.
"Beyond office hours, you owe your body proper sleep, relaxation, exercise and a balanced diet," the experts advise.


Keep political parties out of campus politics: Lyngdoh
Lyngdoh said that no one had approached court for ensuring indirect elections to student bodies since all political parties wanted direct elections
Political parties should be kept out of campus politics and not holding indirect elections to the Delhi University Students Union (DUSU) itself amounts to contempt of court, former chief election commissioner J.M. Lyngdoh has said.
"Whatever the size of university - big or small - no political party should be allowed. They should be kept out of campus altogether," Lyngdoh told IANS in an interview, even as various recommendations of a committee he had headed, including a ban on printed poster, are being openly flouted in the ongoing campaign for the DUSU elections.
He also said that no one had approached court for ensuring indirect elections to student bodies since all political parties wanted direct elections.
The former CEC also said that elections in DU involved big money. 
"DU elections are similar to those for MPs. The amount of money spent in DU elections is comparable to the expenses on a parliamentary election," Lyngdoh said.
Lyngdoh headed a committee that examined student union elections, following which the Supreme Court had passed orders while accepting the panel report in 2006.
He said the panel led by him had recommended indirect elections since Delhi University was too big. "Delhi University is too big. It encompasses semi-rural areas that people don't even know about."
Lyngdoh said that the intention of the Supreme Court was to control student body elections and make them disciplined. "Elections don't mean chaos; but most of these (student body) elections are chaos," he said in an obvious reference to the blatant misuse of money and muscle power.
Lyngdoh alleged that the then vice chancellor of Delhi University in 2006 was also obviously not sincere on the issue.
The DUSU elections are scheduled for September 11. Student outfits of the Bharatiya Janata Party, the Congress and the Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) are battling for supremacy on the campus.
The human resource development ministry in December 2005 constituted the Lyngdoh committee to examine and recommend on certain aspects of the student body and student union elections in Indian universities, colleges and other institutions of higher learning.
The committee, which submitted its report on May 26, 2006, recommended indirect elections for big universities like in Delhi.
"Initially, it was proposed to be indirect elections. Gradually, the whole thing should be promoted to open elections depending on the behaviour of students and conduct of elections," Lyngdoh said.
He pointed out that Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), where open elections are not allowed, also produced many politicians. "Of course, JNU is much smaller university and the student strength is small compared to the DU." 
Lyngdoh said while DU was at one extreme, there were universities like the Mumbai University where student elections were banned.
He said he believed that elections on campuses of educational institutions were essential, otherwise managements of such institutions would resort to arbitrary action against students' interests.
Lyngodh recalled that the panel looked into the situation in other universities as well. He said that the Lucknow University was one of the worst they came across.
"Evidence which came before us was astonishing. Before the student body elections, certain unions in Lucknow University go to town and ask people to contribute for elections. After winning the elections, they insist on new cars for the elected representatives of students. They compel works department of the university to shell out money and demand percentage of all contracts, both in the university and outside," he said.


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