ML: Now that the economy is showing signs of revival, Dr Manmohan Singh has indicated that he may look at withdrawing stimulus measures. Where do you see the economy going forward?
RVS: We should surely see a growth of more than 6-6.25%. The challenge is whether we can continue in this manner. The signals that we are receiving from the global economy are not encouraging. But we are also getting signals that other economies are stabilising. So we can easily maintain our growth rates and then, through local investments, especially through infrastructure, we can grow further. Hopefully, agriculture will start reviving during this rabi season and if next monsoon could be better, we can look for growth rates of more than 7% in the next financial year. Whether it would be 8%-9% is a bit too early to judge given that uncertainties in the global economy have actually worsened in the last few months. The relative contribution of exports to GDP is quite significant. Especially in case of software services and textiles, this impact is quite heavy. The other uncertainty is related to the domestic market. For instance, the prime minister has mentioned that the stimulus may be removed next year because it puts a great deal of pressure on the fiscal (position) of the country. In that sense the government may decide to remove the stimulus altogether or reduce the size. These are two important determinants. We have achieved stabilisation, but now we are talking about 7%-7.5% growth. So we have now already seen the dip; today we are seeing the correction to take us beyond the dip.
ML: With huge government borrowings, there is a lot of pressure on interest rates. Although the RBI didn’t make any changes in the key rates, they have indicated they would gradually hike rates.
RVS: The RBI has taken the first step. They have removed various measures given earlier. For instance, previously, reduction of SLR meant that a great deal of liquidity was released into the system. Similarly, they had provided certain refinance facility to banks and provided leeway under the export refinance scheme. I think they were also looking at certain measures on provisioning and capital requirements. Now they have got back into action and have increased the provisioning norms. So the RBI has already embarked on the first leg of the journey, by withdrawing these monetary measures. They have increased SLR from 24% to 25%. So slowly they are trying to ensure that the balance sheet strength of the banks is protected and enhanced. Banks in the economy have to be strong to withstand the volatility that comes in from time to time in the asset markets or in the overall economy. In the last year they had deliberately taken a low stance. Now, the focus is on higher capitalisation of banks and enhanced capacity to sustain credit-related losses through higher provisioning. Even though we don’t treat a hike in SLR as a rate hike, it is in a broad sense, a rate hike. Even though the overall banking system holds around 27% in SLR, not every bank holds that much. There are many banks which hold lower than the standard SLR requirement, who are permitted to meet it in various other forms. So for such banks, the deficit has actually increased by another percent. These banks will be forced to cut the deficit to the extent of 1%. For others who are holding a surplus, the quantity of surplus has reduced. So I do not think we should look at this hike in a narrow perspective in terms of current SLR holding versus actual requirement. The excess securities that banks hold enable them to borrow funds from the collateralised market or through the RBI window. They could go to the CBLO platform from CCIL, an anonymous terminal where a bank can give its G-Secs and borrow funds against them. So to the extent that banks are surplus, this is actually collateralisable and funds can be drawn against it. The moment this threshold goes from 24% to 25%, the ability to borrow also reduces to that extent. So, this is a backdoor way of establishing a rate hike. The fact is that it is as good as a CRR hike in that sense. So, that 1% hike does have an impact on the liquidity in the system. Similarly, earlier banks could raise export refinance to the extent of 50%. It has now been brought back to 15%, which existed prior to 2008. To that extent, there is a sucking away of some liquidity. So my sense is that the measure has been very cleverly put into the policy, so that people don’t panic.
— Sanket Dhanorkar [email protected]
RBI has increased the provisioning for real estate loans to 1% from the earlier 0.4%. This will put a brake on bank funding of real estate
The just-released credit policy of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has raised the provisioning for real estate loans to 1% from the earlier 0.4%. Besides, the Statutory Liquidity Reserve/Ratio (SLR) of banks has been increased by 1% to 25%. This means that the RBI is discouraging banks from lending money to the real estate sector. A few developers were planning to increase property prices but they will have to hold back now as it will be difficult to get bank funding for their projects. Developers had started increasing the prices of the properties from Q2 FY10.
Of course, real estate agents have tried to play down the impact. “The impact on the real estate sector is not significant as we see it. Banks will now be a little more cautious while lending to real estate players. However, interest rates are at their lowest in recent times, and even a marginal hike due to this tightening in provisioning will not affect the overall sector seriously. Rather, it might help, as the central bank is trying to curb the formation of an asset bubble—in other words, trying to control the asset prices for end users,” according to Shobhit Agarwal, joint managing director—capital markets, Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj.
Keki Mistry, vice chairman and managing director, HDFC Ltd, told Moneylife, “The tone of the policy has been tilted towards inflationary concerns, but the RBI has resisted monetary tightening, recognising its limited impact on reining in inflation as it is driven by rising food prices. The policy has laid the framework for a gradual reversal of monetary expansion in a manner in which it will not compromise on growth.”
He also added, “The RBI’s dilemma ranges from anchoring inflationary expectations without compromising on growth, containing asset bubbles and managing currency volatility and the government’s borrowing programme. Though GDP growth in the first quarter of FY 2010 at 6.1% was an improvement over the previous two quarters, the recovery process is taking time.”
Approximately 600 new projects have been announced by many developers across six cities (Mumbai, NCR Delhi, Bengaluru, Pune, Chennai and Hyderabad) during the festive season. The developers who have not yet got the financing for their projects will face difficulty in getting funds from the banks now. This will prevent the developers from hiking the prices and they have to look for other modes of funds. Reflecting this concern, the BSE Realty Index fell by 6.24% today.
“Banks will lend less but the developers have other forms of borrowing open to them. There are 16 IPOs coming and the developers are even raising money through QIPs. I don’t think the prices of property will go down due to the banks cutting down on the real-estate lending,” said Pranay Vakil, chairman, Knight Frank, a real estate advisory firm.
“RBI allowed banks to lend more to the real estate sector which boosted the lending to real estate sector from Rs62,178 crore in May 2008 to Rs94,499 crore in May 2009 so that the developers pass the benefit on to the consumers. But that did not happen. Rather the developers started increasing rates. The RBI had to step in so that the developers reduce rates and the consumers benefit,” said Pankaj Kapoor, founder and chief executive officer, Liases Foras, a property research firm. The real estate sector has been recovering since April 2009, after which there has been a flood of qualified institutional placements (QIPs), Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) or follow-on issues so that they can complete old projects which were stuck since November 2008.
—Pallabika Ganguly [email protected]
Pankaj Kapoor, founder of Liases Foras, a real estate research firm, tells Pallabika Ganguly of...