Liquidity Issues in Global Fixed Income Markets

Liquidity issues in fixed income not only result in severe mispricing, they also spill over into other assets. If you cannot sell the bonds in your portfolio, you sell equities. If you cannot sell local currency bonds, you hedge by selling the currency. Obviously, these sell offs will creating cascading impact


The concept of liquidity is aptly named. The idea of liquid brings to mind the old saying that you do not miss the water till the well runs dry. It is the same with liquidity. It does not bother you until there is not any.


The general definition of liquidity is the ease with which someone can buy or sell something. Enlarge that definition a bit and it becomes the ability to trade an asset without greatly impacting the price of the asset you are trading.


Normally this is not a problem. Most markets tend to be very liquid. You just pull up your on line broker program. Pick an asset and push either the buy or sell button and like magic you get an email confirming the trade at or near what appears to be the market price.


This is supposed to be true one of the most liquid markets in the world, the US Treasury market. But two weeks ago there were some problems. On 15th October, almost a trillion dollars of US treasuries were bought and sold. This volume in itself is impressive, but what was more disturbing was the volatility. The yield on the 10-year treasuries dropped by thirty basis points in a matter of minutes. This extraordinary drop was not trigged by any important news event. Why it happened is unclear.


Many people credited the new American regulations. These are required by the post-crash financial legislation known as Dodd-Frank. Under that, law banks are restricted from keeping certain risky assets on their books. As a result, they have cut back their inventories of bonds by 75% since the pre-crash high of $235 billion. With smaller inventories, the banks are less able to act as market makers during times of stress.


This would be a reasonable argument except that the new law does not limit holdings of US Treasuries. Therefore, the panic selling has nothing to do with the legislation. One possible other culprit is the rise of more high speed trading with ultrafast computers. This is more likely because the programs used by the computers tend to be similar. So, when things start to go one way or the other, the computers act just like humans. They move in herds only much, much faster.


Another problem is that like computers asset managers also tend to act like a herd. This is not new. What is new is that they are using similar benchmarks and the largest funds have been increasing in size. So when the elephants move, they do it very fast and run over everything else.


The real problem with the fall in US Treasuries was that it happened in an extremely liquid market for bonds. A similar movement in other fixed income asset classes could be a real disaster. One example is Greek sovereign debt. Prices of the bonds of peripheral Europe have been rising all summer as their yields dropped. This reversed itself rapidly. Greek three-year bonds yielded 3.5% in July. By the middle of October, the yield had more than doubled to 7.6%. Liquidity evaporated and the bonds tanked.


Junk bonds were also hit. In the US, the average yield for junk bonds increased from 5.53% at the beginning of September to 6.61% today. During the past two months, there has not been any change in the economic picture. Thanks to Quantitative Easing (QE), default rates for junk are a mere 2.1% far below the historical average of 4.7%. The lack of liquidity in the European high yield market is worse than in the US. There are fewer pensions and insurance companies that can provide support and depth to the market.


Besides US and European junk bonds, the QE program drove many investors to both corporate and sovereign bonds in emerging markets. These include both those issued in the local currency and those issued in US dollars. Here again there are major problems with liquidity.


Many problems in emerging markets are due to foreign investors who rush in and then rush out again. The scale of the investments has exacerbated this situation. The Bank for International Settlements estimates that the top 20 global asset managers hold 30% of all emerging market bonds and equities. This is double the level 10 years ago.


This can result in major changes on smaller economic shocks. For example, the 2013 “taper tantrum” was a much smaller economic event (or even non-event) than the collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008. However, the negative impact on yields in emerging markets was greater. The bid – ask spread for 10-year emerging markets government bonds has also doubled since 2010.


Emerging market governments have diligently tried to avoid these problems. They have attempted to issue long-term bonds in local currency to local investors. Sadly, they have failed. The share of foreign investors versus local investors has increased in recent years. The result is a systematic liquidity mismatch between potential portfolio outflows and the capacity of local institutions and market makers to absorb the outflows.


Liquidity issues in fixed income not only result in severe mispricing, they also spill over into other assets. If you cannot sell the bonds in your portfolio, you sell equities. If you cannot sell local currency bonds, you hedge by selling the currency. Obviously, these will create cascading effect.


The explosion of the equities markets on 31st October caused by turbo money printing in Japan might have indicated that the fears of liquidity are overblown. Except that at least on American exchanges. High yield bonds, preferred stocks, and emerging market debt hardly rose at all. While the Emerging Markets Sovereign Debt ETF actually fell along with precious metals and other commodities. It also does not help the slowdown in Europe, many emerging markets or probably even Japan itself. Instead, it may merely reflect the potential volatility to come except the future may go another direction.


(William Gamble is president of Emerging Market Strategies. An international lawyer and economist, he developed his theories beginning with his first-hand experience and business dealings in the Russia starting in 1993. Mr Gamble holds two graduate law degrees. He was educated at Institute D'Etudes Politique, Trinity College, University of Miami School of Law, and University of Virginia Darden Graduate School of Business Administration. He was a member of the bar in three states, over four different federal courts and speaks four languages.)


Psycho-social Stress and Atherosclerosis

Your mind has more to do with your heart than you have been led to believe


Atherosclerosis is a chronic illness leading to gradual obstruction of various blood vessels in the body. For those who are genetically predisposed to develop atherosclerosis, this could start as early as in the first decade of life. This was shown in the post-mortem aorta obtained from African-American children killed in the crossfire during the Los Angles riots. Advanced coronary artery blocks, in all the three major epicardial vessels, were observed to have profuse collateral connections in a sizeable number of young soldiers shot dead during the Korean and the Vietnam Wars. The post-mortem angiograms in these 205 soldiers showed significant obstruction to the coronary vessels in the majority.


They could easily have qualified for bypass grafting in the commercial cardiological world.


This goes to show that atherosclerotic blocks do not start after the fourth decade of life to produce various vascular accidents.


Although time evolution in a dynamic organism, like the human body which is continuously fuelled by food and oxygen, depends on the total initial knowledge of the organism's body characteristics, like body mass index, serum cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar, etc, it might not validate future predictions. To complicate matters further, doctors do not, and can not, understand the total initial state of any human being with the tools at their disposal to acquire such knowledge.


Quantum physics, having realised the importance of the human mind in understanding the subatomic world, now places great emphasis on the importance of mind over matter in the affairs of the universe. A similar trend is needed in medicine too. The new science of chaos looks at man as a whole, mind included.


More and more studies in the medical field now point to the fact that human behaviour, human emotions, psychosocial factors and inter-personal relations have a larger impact in bringing about diseases ranging from common cold to cancer. There have been studies of students’ hostile behaviour vis-à-vis the atherosclerotic process in their coronary vessels. These clearly indicated that the process of atherosclerosis has a direct bearing on the hostility score even in students as young as 15 to 20 years.


When it comes to vascular accidents, be it a stroke, heart-attack or a peripheral vessel block, the obstructions to the vessels are not as important as the role played by instantaneous blood clots totally blocking the vessel lumen. Even under these circumstances, all the known risk factors pale into insignificance, compared to the emotional and psychosocial factors. Hostility, anger, depression, hatred and lack of social support came up as independent risk factors in the studies. Conventional risk factors like cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes and smoking did not have a major say in the final assault.


An important area of research in the latter field has been job stress. Suffice it to say that the human mind plays a pivotal role in initiating and modulating atherosclerosis on a long-term basis; in addition, the mind brings on the final clot at the final moment of assault.


With the government funds dying up for research even in the advanced West, drug companies and instrument manufacturers are the ones that primarily fund medical research. There are only two ongoing randomised trials under way in this area.


While the first-ever ‘Diet-Heart Study’ in Framingham, having spent $110 million of tax payers’ money, came up with a negative result, showing no relationship between the diet and heart disease at the end of five years, the ‘heart-food’ industry in America, which had by then invested billions of dollars in producing ‘heart-healthy food’, saw to it that the ‘Diet-Heart Study’ results were never published. Big business made billions of dollars of profit by selling cholesterol lowering drugs.


All of them, including the latest statins, at the end of the day, have sent more people to meet their maker in Heaven. Now we know that “it is not what you eat that kills you, but it is what eats you that kills you.”


(Professor Dr BM Hegde, a Padma Bhushan awardee in 2010, is an MD, PhD, FRCP (London, Edinburgh, Glasgow & Dublin), FACC and FAMS.)



Aleeza Morgan

2 years ago

Amazing. Stress is a form of terrorism that infiltrates and attacks our hearts and minds and the effectiveness of our organizations. The situation in which body arteries get hardened or narrowed by the excessive buildup of plaque is called as Atherosclerosis. Lifestyle changes as well as proper medication is must required to out away Atherosclerosis. At Full of Health, we provide natural, but very effective remedies for Atherosclerosis. You can visit our website to gain more knowledge about Atherosclerosis.

How everybody is tracking your mobile internet usage
Twitter is using a newly discovered hidden code that the telecom carriers are adding to every page you visit – and it’s very hard to opt out
Twitter's mobile advertising arm enables its clients to use a hidden, undeletable tracking number created by Verizon to track user behavior on smartphones and tablets.
Wired and Forbes reported earlier last week that the two largest cellphone carriers in the United States, Verizon and AT&T, are adding the tracking number to their subscribers' Internet activity, even when users opt out.
The data can be used by any site – even those with no relationship to the telecoms -- to build a dossier about a person's behavior on mobile devices – including which apps they use, what sites they visit and for how long.
MoPub, acquired by Twitter in 2013, bills itself as the "world's largest mobile ad exchange." It uses Verizon's tag to track and target cellphone users for ads, according to instructions for software developers posted on its website.
Twitter declined to comment.
AT&T said that its actions are part of a test. Verizon says it doesn't sell information about the demographics of people who have opted out.
This controversial type of tracking, known in industry jargon as header enrichment, is the latest step in the mobile industry's quest to track users on their devices. Google has proposed a new standard for Internet services that, among other things, would prevent header enrichment.
People using apps on tablets and smartphones present a challenge for companies that want to track behavior so they can target ads. Unlike on desktop computers, where users tend to connect to sites using a single Web browser that can be easily tracked by "cookies," users on smartphones and tablets use many different apps that do not share information with each other. 
For a while, ad trackers solved this problem by using a number that was build into each smartphone by Apple and Google. But under pressure from privacy critics, both companies took steps to secure these Device IDs, and began allowing their users to delete them, in the same way they could delete cookies in their desktop Web browser.
So the search for a better way to track mobile users continued. In 2010, two European telecom engineers proposed an Internet standard for telecom companies to track their users with a new kind of unique identifier. The proposal was eventually adopted as a standard by an industry group called the Open Mobile Alliance.
Telecoms began racing to find ways to use the new identifier. Telecom equipment makers such as Cisco and Juniper began offering systems that allow the identifiers to be injected into mobile traffic.
In the spring of 2012, AT&T applied for a patent for a method of inserting a "shortlived subscriber identifier" into Web traffic of its mobile subscribers and Verizon applied for a patent for inserting a "unique identification header" into its subscriber's traffic. The Verizon patent claims this header is specifically meant to "provide content that is targeted to a subscriber."
Inserting the identifiers requires the telecom carrier to modify the information that flows out of a user's phone. AT&T's patent acknowledges that it would be impossible to insert the identifier into web traffic if it were encrypted using HTTPS, but offers an easy solution – to instruct web servers to force phones to use an unencrypted connection.
In the fall of 2012, Verizon notified users that it would begin selling "aggregating customer data that has already been de-identified" -- such as Web-browsing history and location -- and offered users an opt-out. In 2013, AT&T launched its version -- a plan to offer "anonymous AT&T data" to allow advertiser to "deliver the most relevant messages to consumers." The company also updated its privacy policy to offer an opt-out.
AT&T's program eventually shut down. Company spokesman Mark Siegel said that AT&T is currently inserting the identifiers as part of a "test" for a possible future "relevant advertising" service. "We are considering such a program, and any program we would offer would maintain our fundamental commitment to customer privacy," he said. He added that the identifier changes every 24 hours.
It's not clear how much of a hurdle changing the identifier would present to a targeting company that was assembling a dossier of a user's behavior.
Meanwhile, Verizon's service – Precision Market Insights – has become popular among ad tracking companies that specialize in building profiles' of user behavior and creating customized ads for those users. Companies that buy the Verizon service can ask Verizon for additional information about the people whose unique identifiers they observe.
"What we're excited about is the carrier level ID, a higher-level recognition point that lets us track with certainty when a user, who is connected to a given carrier, moves from an app to a mobile Web landing page," an executive from an ad tracking company Run told an industry trade publication.
And in a promotional video for Verizon's service, ad executive Chris Smith at Turn, touted "the accuracy of the data," that the company receives from Verizon.
But advertisers who don't pay Verizon for additional information still receive the identifier. A Verizon spokeswoman said, "We do not provide any data related to the [unique identifier] without customer consent and we change the [unique identifier] on a regular basis to prevent third parties from building profiles against it." She declined to say how often Verizon changes the identifier. 
The use of carrier-level identifiers appears to be becoming standard. Vodafone, a British telecom, says it inserts a similar identifier into some mobile traffic. A Vodafone spokesman said "Header enrichment is not our default operation and we do not routinely share information with the websites our customers visit."
However, ProPublica found a handful of Vodafone identifiers in its logs of website visitors. That review also showed more than two thirds of AT&T and Verizon visitors to ProPublica's website contained mobile identifiers.
And there appears to be no way to opt out. Last week, security engineer Kenn White noticed an Ad Age news article about Verizon's mobile marketing program and set up a test server to see if he was being tracked. He had opted out years ago, but he noticed a strange identifier in the web traffic from his phone.
His tweets sparked a flurry of discussion of Verizon's actions on the Hacker News discussion board, and articles in the technology press.
Software engineer Dan Schmads, an AT&T user, also tried to opt out. He found that he needed to visit four different webpages to opt out, including one web page not even on AT&T's domain: But he continues to see the AT&T identifier in his mobile traffic.
AT&T's Siegel told ProPublica that he appreciated the feedback on the difficulty of opting out and that the company plans to streamline the process before launching its service.
"Before we do any new program, we'll give customers the opportunity to reset their mobile ID at any time," he said. "It would be like clearing cookies."
Google has proposed a new Internet protocol called SPDY that would prevent these types of header injections – much to the dismay of many telecom companies who are lobbying against it. In May, a Verizon executive made a presentation describing how Google's proposal could "limit value-add services that are based on access to header" information.


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