Analysts can’t seem to get it right with the Indian tech company Infosys. Five times in the last 8 quarters, their forecasts have been way off. One of the most interesting and consistent problems with analyst forecasts is excessive optimism
Analysts can’t seem to get it right with the Indian tech company Infosys. Five times in the last eight quarters, their forecasts have been way off. The result has often been a precipitous drop in the price of the stock. Is there something wrong with Infosys or the analysts?
To be fair to both, the main problem is the future. No one can predict it. If analysts could do so with consistent accuracy, they certainly would not need jobs as analysts. Although it has been said that analysts were created to make weather forecasters look good, this does not mean that the world does not want its soothsayers, we are addicted to these forecasts, so it is good to better understand how to read the entrails.
One of the most interesting and consistent issues with analyst forecasts is optimism. Forecasts for earnings growth are always sunnier in January. Forecasts for the American market index, the S&P 500, at the beginning of the year predict rising profits. For the past 26 years, both European and American analysts have predicted increased earnings although they have fallen one-third of the time.
Profit forecasts not only predict positive earnings, their annual forecasts start out higher than they end up. Over the two-and-a-half decade period, there were only three years (1988, 2005 and 2006) when forecasts ended up more positive, than at the end of the year.
Not only is the bias wrong, but often the accuracy is way off. European forecasts were off by 20% a third of the time. The US was a bit more accurate, but nothing to be proud of. American analysts were off by more than 10% half the time.
Analyst cannot forecast recessions, nor do collapsing markets seem to bother them. At the beginning of 2008, analysts’ consensus predictions were for a rise in the earnings of S&P 500 companies by 16%. Instead they fell by 18%. A 36% drop in the market in 2008 did not seem to bother them at all. Their forecasts for 2009 were also for earnings growth, which certainly did not happen. They fell again, but not by the same amount as in 2008.
One of the reasons why the forecasts are so optimistic has to do with probabilities. The markets have gone up for 20 of the past 31 quarters. The worst market performance occurred in only six quarters. So if an analyst makes a positive prediction, he has at least a two-thirds chance of being right. Investors’ memories are exceptionally short, so mistakes are soon forgotten and besides everyone else probably made the same mistake. Massive prediction short falls can always be blamed on exceptional circumstances or the infamous black swans.
Besides probabilities, there are profit motives. Brokerages and investment banks (sell side) promote stocks where they stand to make millions in fees. It is hardly surprising that the analysts who work for these firms are biased toward shares going up. Since their employers want to promote the stocks, they also promote the analyst predictions. We never hear from sell side analysts. Their employers, pension funds or mutual funds, have no interest in letting expensive information get leaked to their competitors. So the most unbiased information never gets out.
Another problem with analysts has to do with where they get their information. Investors, analysts and economists all over the world make the rather simplistic assumption that people are actually telling them the truth. The probabilities that they are will be quite small. Enormous sums are at stake. So the incentive to lie is huge. Most developed countries have securities watchdogs that are supposed to insure that the information reaching the market is accurate, timely and complete. Sadly many developing countries are not so blessed. This is especially true when the company in question is owned by the government. In the case of China this is most of the economy. The conflict of interest within the government almost guarantees that the information will be not accurate.
Management is another problem. Managers have a habit of intentionally massaging their guidance. Certainly they have large economic incentives to do so. Convincing the market that the company is doing better than anticipated often results in a rise of the stock. Many executives are also compensated in stock, so a bit of a boost never hurts managers’ compensation provided that the market actually believes you.
Managers also want to create a sense of stability. According to a recent survey 96.9% of CFOs prefer a smooth earnings path. A nice earnings graph without spikes or troughs can mean less perceived risk which translates into lower costs for capital, better credit ratings and more credibility with investors.
The credibility of guidance depends not only on the reputation of the company but also upon the type of news itself. Good news is treated by the markets quite differently from bad news. Markets tend to be sceptical about good news, which partially explains the muted reaction to this quarter’s positive earnings numbers. Apparently the market suspects management’s motives.
Bad news, on the other hand, is considered far more credible and the market has a much greater reaction. Although the likely credibility is equal for both types of news, bad news can push a company’s stock down by as much as 10%. Since the management realizes that bad news has a greater potential to spark a sell-off, the incentives are greater to err on the upside when releasing a negative forecast. Perhaps the greater reaction to bad news has more to do the cognitive bias of loss aversion which is people's tendency to strongly prefer avoiding losses probably twice as much to acquiring gains.
So what is an investor to do? The first would be to consider the source. Analysts have biases just like everyone else. It is not just their employer. They are also subject to the same effects of momentum. I have noticed that hot stocks, like Apple last year, get glowing reviews when they are moving upwards. But when the momentum shifts, so does the hyperbole.
Predictions are also subject to probabilities. We should constantly keep in mind the great English mathematician Thomas Bayes. Bayes pointed out that the probability of a specific event should be continually updated to account for evidence. So investors should be very wary of stories and especially predictions. The most important aid to good investing is to keep an open mind and avoid any specific theory about any particular stock or asset class and be ready to change your mind when the market does.
(William Gamble is president of Emerging Market Strategies. An international lawyer and economist, he developed his theories beginning with his first hand experience and business dealings in the Russia starting in 1993. Mr Gamble holds two graduate law degrees. He was educated at Institute D'Etudes Politique, Trinity College, University of Miami School of Law, and University of Virginia Darden Graduate School of Business Administration. He was a member of the bar in three states, over four different federal courts and has spoken four languages.)
RBI released guidelines for new bank licences in February this year, asking the aspirants to submit applications by 1 July 2013. However, the central bank is expected to follow conservative approach and allow 4-5 new players in an already highly competitive banking sector
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is likely to issue clarifications on new bank licence guidelines as sought by interested entities by early next month, a senior RBI official has said.
“We have received queries from various entities. RBI will be posting on its website all the relevant clarifications with regard to new bank licence guidelines by this month end or early next month so that they get ample time to file applications,” a senior RBI official said.
RBI released guidelines for new bank licences in February this year, asking the aspirants to submit applications by 1 July 2013.
Many large business groups such as Anil Ambani-led Reliance Group, L&T, Mahindras, Birlas, Religare and Videocon have already made public their intentions to apply for the licences, while many NBFCs including the Shriram group, Indiabulls, India Infoline, IFCI and PFC have also shown interest. Those reported to be interested in banking licence also include Tatas and Mukesh Ambani-led RIL group.
However, the RBI is expected to follow conservative approach and allow 4-5 new players in an already highly competitive banking sector.
Many aspirants have roped in former bank chiefs and other senior bankers from India and abroad as consultants to help them prepare for seeking the licence. Interestingly, a large number of real estate players have shown initial interest despite their financial positions not being entirely in adherence to the norms spelt out by the RBI.
After 1st July, the last date of application for bank licence, RBI will make public names of all the interested entities. RBI last gave bank licences around a decade back.
A large number of clarifications could be relating to interpretation of various clauses of the new bank licence norms, as many entities had complained of ‘ambiguity’ on various fronts in the guidelines.
The applicants from the NBFC space have also sought to know whether the RBI would allow conversion of all their Tier-1 branches and locations into bank branches in case of the transfer of their existing activities into various banking functions.
They have sought to know what will happen to the Tier 1 branches that are not allowed to be converted to bank branches, sources said.
As per RBI's guidelines, those eligible to apply for banking licence include entities or groups in the private sector, entities in public sector and Non-Banking Financial Companies through a wholly-owned Non-Operative Financial Holding Company (NOFHC).
Clarifications have also been sought on the corporate structure of the NOFHC as well. The RBI has said the NOFHC shall be wholly owned by the promoters and should hold the bank as well as all the other financial services entities of the group.
Reading Jiban Patra’s sad story, one would conclude that our insurance companies have not thought on these lines; or if they do have a policy to cover such an eventuality, this must be made mandatory for all short-term travels abroad
Every year millions of people travel all over the world; and with the liberalization policy in vogue, millions of Indians travel abroad mostly for pleasure. Though one can guestimate that about 15% to 20% of them go for work.
While travelling to the US and Europe it has become mandatory for one's own safety to take a medical insurance due to exorbitant cost of hospitalization, should one unfortunately need such an attention.
Take the case of late Jiban Patra, a member of the Priyanka Chopra’s entourage, who, due to some reason was unable to go to Canada as he was unable to obtain a visa, breathed his last, and his body was discovered in the Los Angeles Hotel on 7th April.
Apparently, the Bollywood star and her troupe were unaware of his death until it was reported in the press, and the LA Police took up the issue of investigating the cause of his death, and the initial inquest has pegged the immediate cause of death as a heart attack.
Meanwhile, the body had to be retained in the LA mortuary. Although the police department had given clearance for the body to be returned to India, the process of documentation and the cost of transporting the mortal remains, estimated to cost some $15,000 has been the biggest hurdle.
Jiban Patra's family—his wife and two kids—living in Mumbai first had to take the shock of losing him but it must have brought more pain and anguish when the body was retained in the mortuary, with no one taking the responsibility to repatriate it to India. NRIs, mostly from Odisha, as Jiban belonged to this state, had to raise their voice, and the online community sought Priyanka Chopra to take the responsibility to arrange for the same.
Now, according to the media reports, Priyanka was able to obtain assistance from one of her friends, Uday, who was able to take up the issue through his legal advisor, as a sequel to which, she was able to plan her return to India.
Jiban Patra's body is expected to return to Mumbai this week.
This is not the first time that a travelling Indian has lost his/her life abroad. Though millions travel every day on short and long trips, death occurs and brings the tragic news to the family of the deceased. The cause of death could be many; local formalities, which vary from country to country have to be complied, some autopsy has to be performed, and those accompanying the person who passed away, are stranded and in great distress. Most of the time, language of communication also adds to the misery. Indian Embassies are generally helpful.
So, what can we do? Here are couple of suggestions for the recommendations and implementations:
a) Insurance companies which sell overseas medical policies, which are generally for a short term (duration of the trip only) should include “body return” clause, in case of ‘death’ by any means. Considering the fact that more than a million Indians travel abroad, a token increase by say Rs200 per policy should take care of this unfortunate event.
b) The Indian civil aviation authority should direct Indian air carriers such as Air India, Jet Airways, etc, to provide a special rate for such an eventuality. In fact, the civil aviation authority should be able to persuade the airline industry that they should extend a humane consideration to help the family of the deceased by carrying the body for free or for a specially reduced rate. $15,000 is an awfully big sum.
c) The Indian Embassy or Consulate concerned must depute a person, who is conversant with the local language, to assist the family of the deceased, if they are with him/her (family here would mean to cover those associated with the deceased in that trip).
Reading the Jiban Patra’s sad story, one would conclude that our insurance companies have not thought on these lines; or if they do have a policy to cover such an eventuality, this must be made mandatory for all short term travels.
It is now hoped that Priyanka would take care of Jiban Patra's family, and at least provide for educating his children, and provide a source of income for his wife.
(AK Ramdas has worked with the Engineering Export Promotion Council of the ministry of commerce and was associated with various committees of the Council. His international career took him to places like Beirut, Kuwait and Dubai at a time when these were small trading outposts; and later to the US.)