Citizens' Issues
India short of 500,000 police; why it matters -- and does not
India was short of more than half a million police officers on January 1, 2015, the last date for which nationwide data is available, the Lok Sabha was told on July 26, 2016. But our analysis of global police staffing patterns and murder rates in six countries suggests more police do not necessarily mean less crime.
 
Up to 90 per cent of Indian police officers currently work for more than eight hours a day, according to a 2014 report from the Bureau of Police Research and Development. It said 68 per cent of police report working 11 hours a day, and 28 percent report 14-hour work days. Nearly half report that they are called to duty between eight and 10 times a month during offs.
 
There were 17.2 million police officers across 36 states and union territories, when there should have been 22.6 million, according to the ministry of home affairs. There should be an officer for every 547 Indians, according to a government-mandated ratio -- called "sanctioned strength" in official jargon -- but the number is one for every 720.
 
This is among the lowest police-population ratios in the world. In the US, there is an officer for 436 people, Spain one for 198, in South Africa, 347.
 
In a ranking of 50 countries, India was second from the bottom, better only than Uganda, according to a 2010 report from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. That year, there was a police officer for every 775 Indians, so the figure presented to the Lok Sabha represents an improvement.
 
There should be an officer for every 454 people, according to UN standards quoted in the South Asian Terrorism Portal. Using those standards, Bihar needs more than three times as many police officers; even using Indian standards, the state needs 2.7 times the number of police that it has.
 
While it appears logical that a favourable police-population ratio is correlated with a lower crime rate globally, studies on the relationships are inconclusive, even contradictory, according to a 2010 American study. Our analysis of police-population ratios and homicide rates appears to agree.
 
In India, insurgencies and other extreme examples of lawlessness in some states push up crime rates, despite seemingly adequate police staffing. For instance, in Chhattisgarh -- wracked by a Maoist insurgency -- has a police officer for 574 people, not far from the Indian standard.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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COMMENTS

Suketu Shah

10 months ago

This is exactly why nonsense IPL shd not be held in India which is what Namo govt are intending to get it out of India from next yr.

Lok Sabha passes Benami transactions amendment, members seek stricter measures
Taking a crucial step towards checking black money, the Lok Sabha on Wednesday passed the Benami Transactions Amendment Bill with the new legislation having provisions for confiscating 'benami' (proxy) assets.
 
During the debate, members favoured stringent measures including capital punishment to counter such transactions, while Communist Party of India-Marxist member Sankar Prasad Dutta said there is need to completely ban benami transactions in the country.
 
Piloting the bill, which mustered general unanimity in principle as members rising above party affiliations gave it a push, Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said the purpose of the bill is to "discourage" this activity.
 
During the four-hour-long debate, Ravindra Babu of Telugu Desam Party said people who make black money are anti-nationals and should be hanged. Calling for a "comprehensive" law, he said the present bill is well-intended but it should be integrated with other Acts dealing with hawala and drugs.
 
He was also supported Dutta, who said there is need to completely ban benami transactions and lamented that even political leaders are allegedly involved in them.
 
Replying to host of queries raised on the bill by members like Sushmita Dev (Congress), Conrad Sangma (National People's Party), Saugata Roy (Trinamool Congress) and Prem Singh Chandumajra (Akali Dal), Jaitley said: "Section 58 of the new bill clearly states that charitable or religious organisation properties can be exempted by the government."
 
However, answering to clarification sought on the issue by N.K. Premchandran of the Revolutionary Socialist Party, Jaitley said that did not mean any person "fraudulently" launching a religious organisation for routing black money can be exempted.
 
He said the new law is predominately an "anti-black money measure" and its purpose is to seize benami property and prosecute those indulging in such activities.
 
In a jovial vein, he told opposition members, especially Premchandran, that "exemption cannot be pretext for tax evasion. If you make any illegal business out of it... if you create a fake religious sect and start keeping benami property, then government won't exempt it, so please don't do that".
 
Jaitley also defended provisions in the bill that empowers central government to "confiscate" benami properties and not the states, saying this has been done because the prosecutions will essentially be under clauses of a central law.
 
The offences under this law has been kept as "non-cognizable offence" as essentially this is only a tax law violation, he said, adding: "Because we do not want multiple agencies to come and start harassing people." 
 
"The object is not to harass them; the object is that there must be prosecution if a person has violated this particular law."
 
Responding to queries of members on why the government has not come out with a new law in place of the 1988 Act, the Finance Minister said such a move would have given "immunity" to persons who acquired benami properties from 1988 to 2016.
 
While the 1988 Act had nine sections, the amended new law would have 71 sections, Jaitley pointed out, but has other exceptions also like relating to Hindu Undivided Family and trusts owning properties.
 
The punishment clauses too have been strengthened. While the existing law provides for up to three years of imprisonment or fine or both for benami transactions, the amended legislation would provide for seven years imprisonment and fine.
 
Jaitley also informed members that the government has accepted the Parliamentary Standing Committee's suggestion to change the words in the Bill from "known sources of income" to "known sources" with a view to further strengthen the provisions as sometimes individuals may get loans or other kind of borrowings for some properties.
 
Under the new legislation, there is also a provision for filing an appeal against an order within 45 days.
 
As S.P. Muddahanume Gowda (Congress) said the bill does not provide any protection to the whistle blower in connection with benami property, Jaitley said there is no such provision under this act but a separate law on whistle blowers does ensure protection.
 
The present Bill as passed by Lok Sabha was brought by the Modi government in 2015 and it was referred to the Standing Committee on Finance. An amendment billwas introduced by the UPA government in 2011 but it lapsed when the term of the previous Lok Sabha ended in 2014.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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COMMENTS

B. Yerram Raju

10 months ago

For once a good bill has been passed with good intentions. Hopefully the rules would be soon framed appropriately for putting the bill to action sooner than later.

REPLY

DR MUKESH

In Reply to B. Yerram Raju 10 months ago

RIGHT , SIR .

Foreign shareholding limit in Indian stock exchanges raised
The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved a proposal to raise foreign shareholding limit in Indian stock exchanges from 5 to 15 per cent, an official statement said.
 
The decision, taken at a meeting of the cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, will increase shareholding limits for foreign stock exchanges, depositories, banks, insurance companies and commodity derivative exchanges.
 
"The cabinet has also approved the proposal to allow foreign portfolio investors to acquire shares through initial allotment, besides secondary market, in the stock exchanges," the statement said.
 
"The move will help in enhancing global competitiveness of Indian stock exchanges by accelerating, facilitating the adoption of latest technology and global best practices which will lead to overall growth and development of the Indian capital market," it said, adding that the approval was in pursuance of implementation of the union budget 2016-17 announcement made by Finance Minister Arun Jaitley regarding reforms in FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) policy in Indian stock exchanges.
 
The National Stock Exchange (NSE) welcomed the Union Cabinet's decision.
 
"NSE has always aligned itself with global best practices. Exchange believes that government's decision is in sync with the spirit of globalisation," said its Managing Director and Chief Executive Chitra Ramkrishna.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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