Companies & Sectors
How Demonetisation has Affected Rural Areas
By any standards demonetisation of 86% Indian currency that affects the wallets of 125 crore population is no ordinary decision. The Union Government sent shock waves among not just the hoarders of unaccounted money but also among the state governments and the huge political constituency. The measure may have precedence but the dimension of the effect has no precedence and therefore, economic historians are watching in gaze for generating a new script.
 
Cash is dirty; banks keep soap for their staff handling cash to wash off their hands because of the bacteria that causes pneumonia or skin infections. Yet we would love to hold them. Most drug dealers, casinos, prostitutes, or casual farm workers prefer to receive cash for they only receive small remunerations for their day’s labour or night’s pleasure. Waste and scrap dealers, many steel merchants only deal in cash.
 
Large farm owners in India who indulge in unaccounted leasing of their farmlands invest their incomes in films or tourism industry or clandestine drug peddling, showing the income as agricultural income and hence non-taxable. The vote bank politics has all along protected this clan from being taxed. 
 
Many of those shocked out of their wits, quickly turned to gold shops. Several gold merchants, I heard, seem to have billed for one and half tolas (about 11grams) giving only one tola and billed on dates preceding the D-day. Institutions and individuals behave the same way in crisis. One of the prominent gold dealers told me that it would not be difficult to handle raids by the taxmen! He said that it is a win-win for him, his buyer and the taxman.
 
My instant praise for Prime Minister Narendra Modi on this daring feat has taken a U-turn on witnessing the events during the past few days. Hollow planning of the massive effort affecting masses is unfolding day by day. Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) stopped functioning even one day one after the two-day recess. Strange that banks and the Finance Minister argue that the technology of ATMs cannot roll out new currencies without systemic correction (calibration)! Did they not they know this before announcing opening of the ATMs to the public? 
 
Serpentine queues that had disappeared after computerisation are back in front of every bank. Banks will not be able to handle any other business for months to come as the process of readjustment to the new currencies and holding operations. Credit business will suffer for want of personnel, as all the bank employees are busy in handling only cash and cash for exchange operations. 
 
Strange indeed that banks like State Bank of India (SBI) is speaking of huge accretion of deposits at the end of three days! After all, when you withhold withdrawal and allow only deposits would not the latter swell? The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) failed to pump in equal exchange in smaller denominations for Rs4,000 per person and in exchange is the Rs2,000 denomination currency note that can buy the goods and services a common man needs. 
 
The RBI knows for sure that rural areas lack basic infrastructure to handle the demonetisation. Cooperative banks, local area banks (LABs), primary agricultural cooperative credit societies, regional rural banks (RRBs) and even commercial banks operating with as thin a staff complement as two persons do not have capacities to handle cash exchange required by the persons – customers and non-customers – living in their areas of operation. There are not so many ATMs either. Business correspondents (BCs) and business facilitators (BFs), the new clan of intermediaries in the financial inclusion engine of the RBI nowhere figure in this exercise. By any stretch of imagination, the infrastructure for this massive operation just does not exist.
The government may come up with the argument that till 30 December 2016 people have the option to deposit their currency. However, where is the cash for their day to day operations when there is still large scale illiteracy and poverty? 
 
My maid and my driver tell me a different story. Both subscribe to an informal chit fund group, where the needy among the group bid for the chit amount at a small discount. Since all the members are of the same economic clan, they invariably put their bids within bounds. They say that their accumulated chit savings are all in Rs500 denomination that lost its value. They plan to cash it within the boundaries fixed by the Government before December 2016. 
 
Barter and credit are other options that have suddenly sprung up. The retail shopkeepers in my locality offer liberal credit for the next one month. They are promised similar lines of credit from the wholesaler of grains and pulses. Here there are only promises and no promissory notes. But the promises are credible. The moot point is will they survive the entry of foreign direct investment (FDI) in retail? This trade operates on credit cards and debit cards, net banking and digital banking. 
 
A few questions arise in. Will the RBI continue to be the monetary authority? Will alternate currencies like the Bitcoin or other innovations by mobile and digital traders overwhelm the governments? Can money move to the realm of public utility whereby the elected representatives take seize of the financial and monetary systems? 
 
World Bank may have lauded the participatory budgetary process of Brazil that resulted in improvement of the standard of living of many communities where government could issue money directly to communities as a part of democratic process. But can it succeed in India where the local bodies in villages and panchayats are not trusted with cheque drawing powers till date in spite of legislative sanction embedded in 73rd  & 74th Amendments to the Constitution? 
 
It is strange that the FM should ask the people to bear the hardship for a few more days! Can the labourer who received Rs500 on the 8th November buy his loaf of bread or packet of milk next morning as he used to do otherwise? No. And there are millions in this group in rural areas. There can be no two opinions on the need for an overnight decision to clean up the economy. However, the PM could have set up a confidential think-tank on planning for the event and planned it better. The well-intentioned move is having roadblocks and potholes all the way. 
 
(B Yerram Raju is an Economist and Risk Management Specialist and Adviser, MSME Facilitation Council, Industries Department, Government of Telangana. The views are personal)

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COMMENTS

vswami

5 months ago

For a cross-reference, as just picked):
https://www.quora.com/Has-the-demonetisation-been-more-of-a-failure-than-a-success-already/answer/Ankit-Panda-4?srid=DsGw&share=36d3ab9c

Here are , seemingly some unbiased individual thoughts shared, hence worth re-sharing among/ with the ordinary mortals, especially the majority of us who are not sufficiently inspired to mind and find time to spare more thoughts aimed at public-centrist- 'the common good'. May be, whatever its worth or to-be-expected final outcome, try and cover all such points, aplenty in public domain*, viewed from crucial angles, in sending any response to our beloved PM, in response to his open invitation to the citizenry, to care and share with him, so as to serve as a purposeful feedback-input.
* Random Samples:
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/benefits-of-digital-money-and-cashless-banking/article9416230.ece?homepage=true
Jai Hind

Sanjeev B

5 months ago

I think it's time we insist with everyone that we deal with that they accept electronic payment. Change of habits is a must, starting with city dwellers. Otherwise we will not move forward.

Muzamil Mohammed

5 months ago

Higher denominations notes should not have been introduced it defeats the whole purpose. corrupt people will hoard the new higher denominations again.

REPLY

Sanjeev B

In Reply to Muzamil Mohammed 5 months ago

That is true. The Rs.2000 notes are a mistake. And non-availability of the new Rs.500 notes is putting the government on the backfoot. Two basic errors in execution.

chandra2062

5 months ago

Well the argument that maid & driver's chit money in 500 notes has lost its value is totally bogus. They can deposit the same in their accounts & withdraw. Surely that amt will not be greater than 2 lakhs ,so what is the problem & where is the pain? Pl don't mislead the nation with these bogus arguments. We want our country to be free from the black money menace & r prepared to do a small sacrifice now & a bigger in future if required.

S A Narayan

5 months ago

The RBI has periodically introduced new notes which get calibrated in the ATMs in anticipation of new release. That does not mean people assume or think of demonetisation. Therefore if the recalibration was done as part of normal ATM operations, nobody would have been wiser about demonetisation. After all of that was completed with a few new notes across the country, the fresh release of 2000 notes could have followed demonetisation decision. This could have eased quicker dispersal of queues with larger withdrawals. Ofcourse its a moot point how usefule those notes would be; but FM is wrong about linking recalibration and secrecy.

REPLY

Kamal Garg

In Reply to S A Narayan 5 months ago

The whole argument of this Govt is baseless. This Govt has given two arguments for demonetisation:
1. Existence of corruption and black money: No body including great economists are buying this argument that demonetisation eradicates the menace of black money permanently. Do you think all these sarkari babus including income tax/excise/sales tax/RTO officers are going to stop taking bribes. I do not think so. Rather one section of the general public is saying that these same government officers will take bribe money by vengeance because may be they had to burn some of these demonetised currency notes. Businessmen probably would stop having "so much" black money. A very simple solution worldwide including India which is followed is " you make taxation affordable - I mean all sorts of taxation including custom duty, excise duty and what not. People would have less temptation to have black money. You increase custom duty on gold, gold will come by havala route. You reduce and make it affordable, people will bring it through official channel.
1. Prevalence of counterfeit/terrorist funded money : You could have asked people to exchange pre-existing currency notes (say printed before 2016 year or say upto 2015 year) - like what they have done earlier for currency notes printed before 2005. If you are saying that the newly introduced currency notes have additional and foolproof security features so that no one can counterfeit it.
Poor planning and extremely poor execution. Nobody is doubting on the benefits of this Scheme. But what about the harassment to common and poor citizens of this country.

Anurag Garg

5 months ago

One sided analysis. This is a bold move by PM risking his core constituency i.e. traders who are significantly impacted. India needs to undergo this structural change to emerge as financial superpower. Folks in rural areas need to be educated about keeping money in bank and investing in financial instruments against physical assets like gold and real estate. This move has woken up the nation from slumber...people used to just talk about solving the problem of black money and corruption. Excellent move by PM and he must be saluted for this, all the problems notwithstanding.

REPLY

Naintara Sharma

In Reply to Anurag Garg 5 months ago

What world do all of you live in ? 'Educate poor rural folk about keeping money in banks "...sure by all means do that b
BUT till you have taken that first step why are you taking the second one ? What was the reason for this haste that is now threatening to derail the entire exercise ? Nothing new had happened to necessitate this action and pls do not say that people like me will be negative whenever a step like this is taken ....there is never a right time etc etc. I am pushing this only to force out the real truth...ELECTIONS. Look at what it has actually achieved :
Modi appears more muscular than ever .
BJP gets a chance to revive its flagging image.......by the admission of its own party leaders " We will use the 2 surgical strikes to the hilt "!
Modi and his partymen now get to use even more outrageous rhetoric than the Oscar winning performance in Goa.
But Mr Garg there is a God above ....he balances out in one sweep. The dismal implementation, the unnecessary hardships, the unfortunate deaths, the sloppy planning , the dithering bumbling beauracracy, the uncaliberated ATM's, the lack of 500 Rs notes, the insensitive statements have all managed to destroy the myth that the BJP had so assidiously and religiously built around their leaders efficency, his hard work ,his sharp mind etc etc.
Having said all of the above I do hope it will start a thinking process in peoples minds instead of blind acceptance of propaganda.

Anurag Garg

In Reply to Naintara Sharma 5 months ago

We don't live in a perfect world and one cannot achieve anything trying to be perfectionist. I am surprised that even obvious direct benefits like fake currency and terrorism funding are being ignored. Perhaps there is a jealousy factor in certain section about electoral benefit that BJP gets out of it. Why not? If they have guts to take decisions, let them reap the benefit. Earlier governments could not take any tough decision and this country suffered. Now at least support this government for few years, rather than just criticizing, and they say anything.

Kamal Garg

In Reply to Anurag Garg 5 months ago

Nobody is having any doubts on the objective and far reaching benefits (?) this measure of demonetisation will have. The only problem is :
1. ILL Planning and extremely poor implementation of the Scheme.
2. Same objective of counterfeit would have been achieved simply by 'first' introducing new currency notes of any and all denominations and then making a pre-dated (like in earlier case all notes before 2005 year) illegal.
2. If any body is having a dream that 'black money' would be eradicated or even reduced in this country by this means. Absolutely not and never. See what happens after a gap of 6 months or a year. Do you think builders/netas/babus/bureaucrates/IT officers and entire Government machinery would stop taking bribe. Never.
You have simply put the whole country to ransom by making them to stand in queue for exchanging the notes. Not a sensible way to 'run' and 'administer' and 'govern' this country which is aspiring to become a world economic power.

Kamal Garg

5 months ago

Why would somebody who is hard pressed to offer food to his family and small children suffer simply because he had a currency note - earned by his hard labour - which had overnight became illegal tender in his own country.
Look at the long and serpentine queue outside any bank in India.
Good Indian PM who made the entire country to stand in queue for days together just to get a paltry exchange of Rs. 4000.00 - hardly any thing to meet both the ends of a family.

ksrao

5 months ago

It must be remembered that any detailed planning would have compromised secrecy and would have led to the defeat of the scheme itself. The government should be given credit for its boldness and the suddenness, and not criticised for not making elaborate arrangements. As the PM has said, some initial problems are unavoidable. The govt will learn from them and will proceed to rectify them. It has started doing so.
As for my maid suffering from demonetisation, I give her Rs.100 notes out of the Rs.4000 which I got exchanged from an SBI Branch. If she needs more, I can help her by parting with my notes.
Every month I receive the wages she has earned in cash. As she does not know how to send the money to her son in a rural area, I send it to her son's account by using my own remittance facilities. My act comes out of a realisation of her need and there is no need for me to put on any new-found affection for her.
Also I dont find any need to criticise my PM for her and my little inconvenience.
So far as I see, the only mistake the govt has made is to waste its time in printing and distributing Rs.2000 notes. Presence of this largest denomination note is going to make bribe-giving and bribe-taking easier.
The government can even now flood the economy with Rs.100 notes, and be stingy with new Rs.500 and Rs.1000 notes. With the NHD (New High Denomination) notes being available in plenty, we will be back to square one where corruption and black money will reign supreme , rather sooner than later.

REPLY

Sanjeev B

In Reply to ksrao 5 months ago

I agree. The Rs.2000 note seems to be based on ill advice. It should not have been introduced.

Sandeep Chowdary

5 months ago

Agreed. Laudable decision but could have planned better for addressing Rural coverage. But the problem is with timing and inclusion of more people into the closed group. The more time the decision is held, the risk of spreading the secret increases. Same goes with inclusion of more people into the closed group. Additionally the news about new 2000 notes was doing rounds in whatsapp. Holding it any longer while working on better infrastructure could have defeated the purpose. Having said that, I think most of us are party to creation of black money in one way or the other. So the aim should be for all of us to help the needy and illiterate wherever and whenever we can.

B. KRISHNAN

5 months ago

In the interest of common good, this measure should be supported. I am not surprised that the elite are suddenly now shedding crocodile tears for their maids! If they feel so disturbed by the plight of their maids/drivers, why not buy them the provision using their credit cards?

Gopalakrishnan T V

5 months ago

The article has highlighted the inconveniences and the lack of planning on the part of the Government to make the demonetisation scheme a success. It is true that the logistics to have a smooth implementation have failed but such schemes which have more of oppositions than acceptances would have resistance and lack of support from those who have accummulations of black money and are corrupt. Though the scheme has very laudable objectives to prevent corruption, black money, terrorism using all illgotten wealth and circulation of massive fake currencies because of the presence of misfit and counterfeit groups of persons in the society , its implementation requires lot of planning, coordination and meticulous implementation by the authorities like Government, Reserve Bank, Banks and Financial Institutions and lots of enforcing agencies like Income tax Department, Enforcement Directorate, Police and State Governments. No doubt, the implementation of the scheme has been facing problems but efforts are on to minimise the inconveniences and the people by and large have expressed their preparedness to put with some inconveniences taking into consideration the benefits of the scheme to the society and the economy. The author instead of coming out with some workable solutions to manage the crisis, has only highlighted the problems which is unfortunate taking into consideration his experience as a banker and love of the poor people and their welfare.
The Government and RBI can think of enhancing the supply of low denomination notes by all means and they can order the major Temples, Churches, mosques and all establishments where huge collections of small denomination notes and coins take place to surrender the same compilsorily to nearby banks. on a day to day basis . The running of chit funds and other money circulation schemes in operation in various markets and small towns and villages are not a permmissible line of business and there are several such illegal transactions in and around the country which can be ordered to be stopped with immediate effect. Black money holders are moving left and right to encash their hoardings and they seek the help of commission agents who are making lots of noise on the inconveniences with the support of backing from persons having vested interests. This is the time for banks to be innovative to enhance their presence and see that they are able to mobilise funds of small denomionations and enhance their credit facilities to those weaker segments who are really in need of cash. The middle class people who can afford to wait are also found crowding the banks for withdrawals and this can be minimised by special appeals and assurances. This is the opportune moment to switch over to digital and other modes of payments and the Government has to ensure that the business establishments all over the Country accept card payments without any hesitation. Those who discourage card payments including by resorting to extra charges need to be identified and disincentivised. Even make my trip are charging inconenience charges to book any tickets through them using cards. Umpteen things can be done if there is a will. This is the best opportune moment for public to give support to the Government which has an intention to clean the economy eliminating black money with allits attendant ill effects.

REPLY

B. Yerram Raju

In Reply to Gopalakrishnan T V 5 months ago

I hold full support for the measure and no dilution. This does not obfuscate airing the reality. The problems of rural poor have been ignored in the process. Unless the problem is correctly identified solutions would not come and solutions will have to be found where the problem existed. Yes; no blame on Modi or this policy. Does not the RBI know up front that the cooperatives, RRBs, LABs, BCs, BFs do not have the handling capacity of this gigantic currency transition? Then overnight planning has not been done? Not a word about rural clientele since the policy was announced either from the RBI or the commercial banks. Even post offices in rural areas do not have cash holding capacity of the magnitude the change warrants. Coming to solutions: que handling: Banks could have opened separate windows for cash transfer and cash deposit for the senior citizens and women. 2. They should have done ABC analysis of the branches on the day of closure of branches and based on the number of accounts and the population in the locality. Usually crowded branches could have been allowed longer working hours. Some banks announced hiring the services of retired persons of up to 65 years age. But their services can be utilised for only back office work as everything else is biometric linked in note machines to computers. SBI Hyderabad Circle gave instructions on the third day of opening that the staff be not allowed to work overtime and the counters work only during the working hours. RBI did not release the lower denomination notes in the required measure. Banks turn in huge demonetised currency as deposits. But this demonetised currency will have to be sent to the incinerators of either the banks or the RBI. It will take quite sometime to replenish it and such deposits are in CASA. Customers can draw that amount when needed. But replacement of the dead currency with live currency is both time consuming and arduous. Banks will not be able to open either new accounts or extend credit at least for next four months and this will erode the net interest margins of the banks. This may be a small loss compared to the cause that serves to bolster the economy.
Banks should have instantly increased the transit insurance limits of BCs and BFs and also provided safety to them for turning the dead cash into the related vaults at the end of the day through a special designated branch without they having to get into the crowded counters!! Planning at the level of commercial banks and RBI needs correction and this can happen only when they think of the customers that they long back transferred to the machines in front of them.

Gopalakrishnan T V

In Reply to B. Yerram Raju 5 months ago

The typical public sector character of PSBs has come in the way of implementation of the scheme and RBI has to share the blame for that. Planning in this instant demonetisation scheme has been missing at various levels and this may be due to the need to maintain utmost secrecy. However, as soon as the scheme was announced, RBI and the banks should have acted proactively anticipating the magnitude of transactions involved liberalising the rules and regulations relating to transportation of currencies, insurance and other related logistics in addition to their normal function of acceptance of deposits and grant of loans. . The cooperative banks are mostly operating hand in glove with local influential polticians and big wigs and they have their own vested interests to protect the black money holders extending all possible help for that. No doubt RBI being a well expertienced and a highly professional Institution could have anticipated the problems and could have acted proactively at Post demonetisation stage to mitigate the problems faced by the rural segments in particular. They could have advised the PSBs to open special counters with small denomination notes specially mobilisled for this purpose. Distribution of 2000 Re note could have been selectively done in villages as the rural people cannot do much of transcations with such high denomination notes and these notes also would become handy for the rural rich to exploit the villagers by offering them Re 500 and Re1000 notes in exchange for Re 2000 note and again putting the villagers in trouble for small denomination notes. The general tendency unfortunately is to exploit the situation to the maximum as the criminal brains always outsmart the good thoughts and find innovative ways to defeat the demonetisation scheme. I strongly feel this is the best opportune moment to all right thinking professionals, citizens, officials, and and all enforcement agencies in what ever field they are to provide all possible practical suggestions and solutions to make the scheme a grand success to make the country free from the greater evils of black money.

SuchindranathAiyerS

5 months ago

Any kinds of planning would have compromised the secrecy and, thereby, the object of the exercise.

War on fake and untaxed cash to last seventy days? Why not? Fifty days therapy for a Seventy year ailment.

The ordinary man seems to relate to monetary theory and the imperative of demonetization better than India's opposition leaders. Everywhere I go I see only admiration and gratitude for Modi among the ordinary voting citizen. There are exceptions. restaurateurs, hoteliers, tour operators.

I don't know any, but I am sure vice mongers would be as annoyed as their customers. The Politician, Bureaucrat, Police, Judge, Journalist, Crony Capitalist Kleptocracy. To this number we add the likes of Mamta Bannerjee, Arvind Kejriwal, Mayavati and Raoul Gandhi.
But Raoul Gandhi, who represents a lineage and party that has given the ordinary man endless trouble since 1921, both personally and systemically by eradicating integrity and competence, gets away with it. Because, he has only five fingers to a hand. When he points at Modi, only four fingers point back. Where are the other thousand fingers to point at this scion of Angulimal Sampradaya?

REPLY

Atul

In Reply to SuchindranathAiyerS 5 months ago

very well said. secrecy is essence of this scheme. and all those who are complaining about lack of planning have no understanding of what is being done.

S.S.A.Zaidi

5 months ago

A very well articulated analysis. There is no point discussed on this article that can invite disagreement. Intention noble but planning pathetic

Manish Sidhpura

5 months ago

As always media is doing what gives it TRPs- creating unnecessary hype and using a handful examples to present an otherwise statistically invalid data. The poor only feel happy that justice has been meted out. And frankly for them, this is an unprecedented opportunity to make some quick bucks as they are being offered 20-25% commission to deposit their employer's black money into their accounts! Majority of the people complaining are those who have been stung by this brilliant move!!

ramesh edukulla

5 months ago

media is hyping too much and creating hysteria.. they should start educating, broadcasing stories of how they can use the digital media so that people need not queue up for cash.. all the traders should start accepting debit cards for lower transactions too... we should co-operate and lend helping hand to government for larger cause..!!!

Task force constituted to speed up cash distribution
The government on Monday said it has constituted a task force to speed up the re-calibration of ATM machines and increase the disbursement of cash through various other channels.
 
The decision in this regard was taken at a high-level meeting chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday evening, Economic Affairs Secretary Shaktikanta Das told media persons on Monday morning. 
 
Das elaborated that the task force, headed by a Deputy Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), will keep a real-time watch and monitor the distribution of cash through various channels and take necessary action in a timely manner.
 
Later in the day, the RBI said the task force constituted to hasten the re-calibration of ATM machines to dispense new series of high denomination currency notes will comprise of representatives from various government ministries.
 
It will also have members from SBI (State Bank of India), Axis Bank, ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank -- the four banks with the largest ATM networks in the country.
 
"A representative each of ATM OEMs, managed service providers, CIT (cash-in-transit) companies and WLA (white label ATMs) operators will be invited to the deliberations of the Task Force," the apex bank was quoted as saying in a statement. 
 
There are over 200,000 ATMs in the country. Apart from setting up of the task force, the government has also decided to enhance the daily withdrawal limit from ATMs to Rs2,500 from the earlier Rs2,000.
 
However, ATMs are unable to meet the high demand of cash in the lower denomination of Rs100 or the new high-value currency notes.
 
The ATM machines need to be reconfigured to dispense the new higher denomination notes because of their size being different from the phased-out currency.
 
Currently, banks have been replenishing ATMs with Rs 100 notes. However, with capacity constraint of ATMs that can carry only about 2,500 notes of Rs 100 denomination, the machines run out of cash after serving 125 persons on average.
 
State-owned SBI has said that it will try and re-calibrate by Monday night 1,000 of its ATMs to dispense Rs 2,000 currency notes.
 
On November 12, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said the re-calibration process of ATMs for dispensing new design currency notes will take two to three weeks, since the present machines are designed to dispense only Rs 100, Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes. 
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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COMMENTS

B. Yerram Raju

5 months ago

ATMs should have only Rs.50; Rs.100 and Rs.500 dispensers and not Rs.1000 (if released in future) and those Rs.2000 released now. The day withdrawal can continue to be restricted to Rs.10000 per person after the ATMs are fully loaded. Let the m take more time but let the time be announced so that people would not become nervous. Most persons - middle class and below are prepared to wait but they would like to be certain of the waiting time to plan their own personal and family expenditures.

No highway toll till Nov 18, says Gadkari
To ensure smooth traffic flow on national highways, Union Minister Nitin Gadkari on Monday announced that the government has decided to extend the suspension of the fee collection at all the toll plazas till November 18.
 
"Toll suspension is extended till 18th November midnight across all National Highways," the Minister of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways Gadkari tweeted.
 
Earlier, the government had twice announced the suspension of toll collection at all toll plazas on national highways till the midnight first of November 11 and then November 14.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

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