Bonds, Currencies & Commodities
Death knell for the bond market in India

MCA’s latest draft rules for public deposits, once enacted, will mean end of the bond markets in India, particularly for non-banking non-financial companies. Almost every possible reason and avenue for companies to issue bonds has been killed

The regulatory framework for companies is undergoing an overhaul with the Companies Act, 1956 being replaced by Companies Act, 2013 and new rules thereon. The lawmakers have been mindful of the present regulatory scenario while drafting the new laws. One of the issues of key concern to the law makers has been deposit acceptance by non-banking non-financial companies. In the past, hundreds of companies have defaulted in payment of deposits to depositors, many of whom lost their life’s savings. In this pretext, in 2009, draft of the Companies Bill, there was proposed a blanket bar on deposit-taking by non-banking non-financial companies.


The new regulatory regime for acceptance of deposits makes a distinction between member deposits, and public deposits. On 22nd October, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) placed the draft rules on Acceptance of Deposits by Companies on its website and is currently open for public comments. Under the proposed rules corporates will have scanty options for raising funds by issuance of securities yet falling out of the definition of public deposits. It will not be an understatement to say that the MCA’s latest draft rules for public deposits, once enacted, will mean end of the bond markets in India, particularly for non-banking non-financial companies (NBNCs). Almost every possible reason and avenue for companies to issue bonds has been killed.


Below the author discusses each of the options that could have been available and have been possibly clogged by regulators:

Funding sources for companies: Debt capital

Some of the exclusions to the definition of public deposits which corporates could tap on for raising funds include:

Secured debentures

Issuance of bonds/ debentures secured by a first charge or a charge ranking pari passu with the first charge on any assets excluding intangible assets has been excluded from the definition of deposits. Further, the value of the security shall be for the amount remaining unsecured after creating insurance on deposit.


There is a huge regulatory disincentive for any company to issue bonds. Mandatorily, bonds have to be secured by first charge. It is trite knowledge that most corporate assets are already subject to first charge of bankers/ lenders, and none of them will be willing to cede a pari passu first charge in favour of bondholders.

Some one has to convey to our regulators that world over, bonds are unsecured; if companies had assets to collateralise bonds, they would rather go for traditional lending methods than look at capital markets.


Further the debenture redemption reserve requirements also act as a disincentive for corporates from compliance perspective to raise funds through debenture issuances.


Compulsorily convertible debentures (CCDs)

Issue of bonds/ debentures that will be compulsorily convertible into shares of the company within five years also fall out of the scanner of deposits.


This again does not seem lucrative as the shareholding of the company get diluted. The company and its shareholders do not have an incentive in raising funds by this mode of security.


Optionally convertible debentures (OCDs) have completely been barred. This exactly is a sample of reactive lawmaking. If Sahara misused OCDs, let us not have OCDs at all! After all, OCDs are an interesting instrument for a company to raise money cheaper than non-convertible debentures (NCDs), and the prospect of appreciation may easily drive retail investors to feel interested in OCDs. Other than the Sahara episode, one fails to understand what could have been the problem with OCDs. Interestingly, both the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for NBFCs, and the MCA for NBNCs have blocked OCDs as an instrument.

Commercial paper & NCDs

Issue of commercial paper or any other instrument issued in accordance with the guidelines or notification issued by the Reserve Bank of India are exempted from the definition of deposits.


The language of the draft rules exempting “any other instrument issued in accordance with the guidelines/ notifications issued by RBI” includes NCDs issued for tenure of not more than a year.


Both commercial paper and NCDs are short term instruments and does not address the long-term and/ or medium term fund requirements of a company. Surely these cannot be depended on for scaling up or expansion type activities. Also, obviously, NCDs can be used only for short term requirements and does not help companies to meet their long term requirements in any way.


Other securities

Other securities that a corporate can issue for fund raising are as follows:

(i)Preference Shares

Preference shares are not any innovative instrument, but have been used for raising funds in a company. In the pretext of the proposed rules one had to scout for options on fund raising, preference shares would be another option available in hand.


However, tax dis-incentives on dividend distribution tax with regard to preference shares do not make them any popular mode of raising funds with corporate entities.



Subordinated debt is also a way of raising funds, but is typical for non-banking financial companies to issue sub-debt as sub-debt qualifies as Tier II capital. No such motivation/ incentive are available for corporates to explore this option.


The current choices to fall out of the scanner of public deposits are very limited and do not incentivise the corporates to issue securities to facilitate the growth of the bond market.


It seems the law making is working with the motivation of plugging the loopholes in the existing regulatory regime. The mood seems as if the law makers do not want corporates to take action at all as there is a lurking fear that something may go wrong. In an attempt to regulate the corporate sector, the law makers have ended up tightening the regulatory noose for the corporates.


As a nation, we need to realise that exceptions cannot drive the rule. Sahara was an exception, an outright scam. Not because of lack of law, but because for years, no one bothered to check the implementation of the law. And in any case, if scams become the reason for lawmaking, and the objective is a scam-free system, then we have to think of a system that does not move at all, because that is the only scenario which has no risk of scams. It is so unfortunately that a spate of reactive law making.


The very fact that law making should not be impulsive was rightly brought to the forefront in the Damodaran Committee report recommendations as well1.


(Nidhi Bothra is executive vice president at Vinod Kothari Consultants Pvt Ltd.)

1 Read our views on the Damodaran Committee report recommendations – “Will we see policies that are not impulsive law making” here



Gujarat NRE Coke: a view from the bitter Australian mining town of Illawarra

Gujarat NRE, a product of the resource bubble of 2007, recently came under scrutiny for questionable corporate governance practices. Here is how a small Australian paper in the mining town of Illawarra reported about the lavish lifetyle of the promoters and their shenanigans even as the company sank

Beleaguered miner Gujarat NRE Coke Ltd (GNCL) has initiated its corporate debt restructuring (CDR) program with major lenders to get rid of its toxic debt, according to a filing on BSE. The company has been unable to pay off its debts for the last few months and even could not pay its miners in Australia. This company had stormed the small mining town of Illawarra and has since been the central talking point of that town’s small society. Illawarra Mercury, a local newspaper has been closely following the company’s Australian subsidiaries for its questionable corporate governance practices and inability to keep its promises to its miners.

The real problems started in earlier sometime back but this year GNCL admitted it could not repay its debts. Then, in July, the Australia environmental regulator, Clean Energy Regulator, slapped charges on the company’s Australian mines for failing to pay up carbon credits as per Australian environmental regulations. Problems mounted further as the company was included in the list of biggest environmental polluters in the country. The company tried to desperately raise cash by selling off various assets, including some of its wholly-owned subsidiaries in Australia.

According to Illawarra Mercury, one of the company’s subsidiaries owned a multi-million dollar home to accommodate Arun Jagatramka, but sold it for way more than the market value to parties closely associated with the Jagatramkas – a typical Indian trick by Indian businessmen to keep the assets private and the debts public. A mansion, at a coveted address, bought at $5 million, was sold off for $10 million,  according to Illawarra Mercury, to Besant International owned by a person called Kunal Chandak. The Jagatramkas were also spotted in a local derby (a horse race and frequent hang outs for the rich and famous) with the Chandaks.

The paper also reported that as many as 500 workers from both the Russell Vale and Wongawilli mines in Australia, have not been paid for weeks, reportedly totalling $5 million, and it is still not certain whether they will be paid at all. Their future is insecure. The Australian local even reports that families of miners are finding it hard to make ends meet. Despite the Jindals taking over the Australian mines, their future still remains uncertain. Bob Timbs, who represents the workers of Gujarat NRE Coke’s Australian mines was reported saying, “...even the most optimistic of Gujarat’s workers are becoming deeply cynical by the flim flam that has come from (Gujarat NRE Coking Coal) head office.”

While the miners continued to suffer, the Jagatramkas continue to live a lavish lifestyle. Illawaya Mercury reports that during one of its meeting with shareholders and miners, on 16 October, Arun Jagatramka came in a shiny Bentley, decked up in a tailored suit while the workers were donning their usual ‘dusty highs’.

His extravagances didn’t include just horse races and a Bentley. Being an avid sports fan, the Jagatramkas even sponsor an Australian basketball sports team—Woologong NRE Hawks—with Gujarat NRE embezzled on the team’s jersey. A quick glance at Jagatramka’s twitter account will show tweets of mainly sport-related items, mostly of of his sponsored team, Hawks.

All this comes at a time Gujarat NRE Coking Coal Ltd (GNCCL), the Australian company, relinquished its majority stake to Jindal Steel & Power (Jindal), with the latter holding 53.63%, to pay off its debts and pay outstanding salaries to miners.

The company has come under heavy fire for its questionable corporate governance practices. Shortly before GNCL adopted its accounts for the 2012-13 fiscal, Grant Thornton, the company’s auditors for GNCCL, said that they could not express an opinion on the financial statements since they have doubts on the company's ‘Going Concern’ assumption, valuation of impairment and assets, deferred tax assets, recoverability of trade receivable and completeness of contingent liabilities. Shockingly, it was discovered recently that ICAI president Subodh Agrawal, who is also chairman of the audit committee of Gujarat NRE Coke, recommend unaudited financials of the company’s Australian subsidiaries to the Board of Directors, knowing fully well that they are highly material amounts.

The company told shareholders that in its consolidated financial statements, 91% of its assets and 64% of its revenues, which are in Australian subsidiaries, are unaudited!




2 years ago

A very sad commentary.
No news posted on what happened subsequently to this problem , jspl, and grecoke-india ?

Guide to RTI: Ask the right queries to obtain information you seek

The RTI is one of the most powerful tools and an essential democratic right of every Indian citizen. A handy guide takes you through the steps to file an effective guide

The Right to Information Act, 2005 (RTI) that came into force eight years back has proven to be one of the most powerful tools put to use by every Indian—big and small—to obtain information that was all along denied under the garb of ‘official secrecy’. Thanks to the benefits of the RTI, many of India’s biggest scams and scandals are now exposed.

Deepak Sandhu, chief information commissioner (CIC), very rightly says, “RTI is a game changer. It has democratised information to the citizen’s advantage. The citizen is central in the Act. Other countries offer freedom of information while our legislation recognises it as a right.”

Here are a few tips to make effective use, to extract the most appropriate response, and minimise the possibilities of rejection on frivolous grounds.

  1. The RTI Act entitles you to obtain response by way of information within 30 days.
  2. Remember, it is the basic information that is being sought and not hows, whys and who’s of any matters.
  3. Information under the Act can be sought from central, state and local authorities, parliament and state legislatures, judiciary, police, security forces, public sector undertakings and bodies substantially financed by the state.
  4. You need to consider deeply about the precise nature of the information required to enable you to frame your query in English, Hindi or the state language very concisely in a few words.  Do not go on rambling explanations or suggestions or attempt vague roving enquiries.
  5. The RTI should never be used to settle scores or to target or harass any one individual or department. For instance: “Maine uske oopar RTI mara; ab ayega maza!”
  6. It is important that the information elicited should not be merely filed away. It ought to be taken forward effectively to get matters moving in the right direction and/or to set right systemic flaws, if any.  Possibly, if necessary, it can be put to use in a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) at a High Court.
  7. You can seek information pertaining to records, documents, memos, mails, opinions, advices, press releases, circulars, images or any computer generated matter, orders, log books, contracts, reports, papers, samples models or electronic data.
  8. Under Section 4 of the RTI Act, you are empowered to visit, by prior appointment, the office concerned to inspect records and official documents and obtain xerox copies on payment of copying charges at actuals.  To enable you to do so, you are to be provided suitable table and sitting space within the office premises to carry out your verification/inspection exercise to flag the documents that need to be copied. For instance, authorities like the BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) prefer Section 4 approach for the simple reason that it is you, who will flag only the documents/information required and that relieves them of the burden of hunting through a mass of bureaucratic red taped files and also the task of drafting a reply that has to be approved and finally signed, sealed to be sent to you within the mandated 30 days of receipt of your application.
  9. The Act also provides for inspection of government works and to take samples from sites.
  10. Section 6 of the Act has laid down a simple form that that can be copied on plain paper and signed by the applicant who has to be an individual and not any organisation.

  1. The application fee of Rs10 can be paid either in cash across the counter. Court fees stamp can also be affixed in the case of BMC and Maharashtra State or Demand Draft or Pay order in favour of the Accounts officer of the concerned department.
  2. However, a more convenient mode would be to obtain a Postal Order for Rs10, attach it to the application in duplicate and hand it in the RTI counter in any Head Post Office (PO). The PO counter clerk will retain the two copies and return duly stamped the third copy with the counterfoil of the postal order. The PO then despatches the application to the department concerned with a copy to you.

(Nagesh Kini is a Mumbai-based chartered accountant turned activist.)




2 years ago

one person to purchase our house he gave 5,00,000 and take receipt for that and he has not give xerox copy of that receipt since 9 months he is not purchasing our house and saying i have given 50,00,000 and i have agreement but he does not have agreement under rti can we ask xerox of that receipt
plese suggest us

g s raveendranath

3 years ago

physical verification of departmental material comes under rti act 2005

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