CLSA says financial sector is in phase 2 of the credit and deposit growth cycle during which banks will underperform; banks with a stronger current and saving accounts ratio, balanced asset liability management and lower dependence on wholesale deposits are better positioned; it prefers ICICI, HDFC Bank, PNB, SBI
Since March 2010, credit growth has been running ahead of deposit growth creating tight liquidity conditions. Credit growth is at 23%, but deposit growth has lagged behind at just 16%. Also, since January 2010 the cash reserve ratio is up 100bps (it has been hiked six times this year) to 6% of liabilities. Bank borrowing from the Reserve Bank of India’s repo window is now a high 3% of the deposits or Rs1.2 trillion. The incremental loan-to-deposit ratio has increased to 100% (from less than 70% in April).
All this has forced most banks to hike their deposit rates by as much as 150 basis points. Since short-term interest rates have moved up faster than the long-term rates (incidentally, leading to a flattening of the yield curve), short-term deposit rates have gone up more than the long-term rates on deposits. Since lending rate hikes have been slower and lower than the deposit rate hikes, banks’ margins are going to be under pressure from here on.
CLSA’s analysis of the interest rate cycle over the past six years indicates that high loan-to-deposit ratios lead to deposit rates rising ahead of and faster than lending rates. “In the last cycle margins contracted, especially for low CASA banks, as banks were not able to pass on the higher cost of deposits,” it says in a report to its clients.
In this scenario, it believes that “banks with a stronger CASA franchise, balanced ALM (asset liability management) and lower dependence on wholesale deposits are better positioned.” It recommends HDFC Bank and ICICI among private banks and State Bank of India (SBI) and Punjab National Bank (PNB) among the public sector banks. Axis has a high CASA ratio, but may face margin pressures due to some ALM gap and a higher share of wholesale deposits.
CLSA believes that the financial sector is in phase 2 of the cycle of credit and deposit growth, where deposit rate rise is greater than the lending rate hike, credit growth remains healthy, deposit growth picks up, incremental LDR moderates but spreads and margins contract leading to banks' underperforming. This phase lasted a year last time from January 2006 to December 2006, a figure in its report shows. Phase 2, according to CLSA will be lending rate rising faster than deposit rates, continuation of healthy credit growth, healthy deposit growth, incremental LDR stabilises, leading to spreads and margins expanding and outperformance of bank stocks. In the last cycle this phase lasted between January 2007 and December 2007.
Phase 1, which we have just come out of, according to CLSA, lasted from July 2009 to now, and previously between June 2004 and December 2005. In this phase, interest rates were low, leading to a pick-up in credit growth even when deposit growth remained low and incremental LDR rose. Spreads and margins expanded leading to bank stocks outperforming.
Among banks that CLSA covers, HDFC Bank has the highest CASA ratio at 50%+, followed by SBI and ICICI at a little less than 50%, Axis and PNB at a little above 40%, Bank of Baroda (BoB) and Bank of India (BoI) at between 30% and 40%, and Corporation Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce and Canara Bank between 20% and 30%. In terms of CASA growth, Axis, HDFC Bank, SBI, BoB, and Union Bank score the highest. Yes Bank, Axis and ICICI have the highest dependence on wholesale deposits while SBI, Union Bank and PNB have the lowest.
(This article is based on secondary research. The report is for information only. None of the stock information, data and company information presented herein constitutes a recommendation or solicitation of any offer to buy or sell any securities. Investors must do their own research and due diligence before acting on any security. Some of the opinions expressed in this article are the author’s own and may not necessarily represent those of Moneylife.)
The Indian market is likely to witness a flat-to-positive opening on the back of supportive global cues. The US markets ended with marginal gains overnight while the Asian pack was mostly in the green, guided by stronger-than-expected economic growth for the September quarter. The SGX Nifty was up 18 points to 5,943 over its previous close of 5,925.
The government is set to release the weekly food inflation numbers around noon today. Besides, oil stocks will be in focus as the government is set to hike auto fuel prices next week.
The market opened in negative terrain on Wednesday, tracking its Asian peers which were trading mixed. Profit-taking, along with fears of a hike in fuel prices due to a rise in global crude prices, weighed on the sentiments. The slide continued as the day progressed, and the indices touched the day's lows amid range-bound trade in the post-noon session. The broader indices continued to languish and ended sharply lower. A news report that the Intelligence Bureau is looking at likely price-rigging in select second-rung stocks is said to have caused the decline in the market today. However, the key indices pared some losses, but ended in the red, down over 1% each. The Sensex ended at 19,696.48, down 238.16 points (1.19%). The Nifty settled 72.85 points (1.22%) lower at 5,903.70.
Wall Street settled with marginal gains on Wednesday led by financial and technology stocks. Banking stocks ended higher on hopes of higher profits going forward. Positive outlook from technology majors Texas Instruments Inc and Nouvellus Systems Inc boosted the sector. Besides, a strengthening dollar kept a tab on commodity prices.
The Dow rose 13.32 points (0.12%) to 11,372.48. The S&P 500 added 4.53 points (0.37%) to 1,228.28. The Nasdaq advanced 10.67 points (0.41%) to 2,609.16.
Asian markets were mostly higher in early trade on Thursday on positive economic data emanating from the region and support from its US peers, which ended with modest gains overnight. Japanese gross domestic product grew at an annualized 4.5% in the three months ended September, faster than the 3.9% reported last month and higher than analysts’ estimates. The Bank of Korea left the seven-day repurchase rate at 2.5%, the central bank in Seoul today.
The Hang Seng was 0.57% higher, the KLSE Composite gained 0.15%, the Nikkei 225 rose 0.21%, the Straits Times was up 0.39%, the Seoul Composite surged 0.72% and the Taiwan Weighted advanced 0.84%. On the other hand, the Shanghai Composite shed 0.02% and the Jakarta Composite lost 0.05% in early trade. The SGX Nifty was up 18 points to 5,943 over its previous close of 5,925.
The Supreme Court has favoured widening of the ambit of the ongoing probe into the second generation (2G) spectrum case, saying it should also include the period since 2001 when first-come-first-served was the norm for spectrum allocation.
The judges’ remarks assume importance as the former telecom minister, A Raja, has maintained that he was treading on the footsteps of his predecessors and was following the 2001 policy.
Ketan Parekh is trading in dozens of stocks, according monthly intelligence reports. Top ministry officials have been getting these reports regularly. But why are they sitting idly, and why is SEBI keeping mum?
Ketan Parekh has been banned from trading in securities from December 2003 till 2017, but by all accounts Mr Parekh has been very active in the market all these years.
Most amazingly, the government's own intelligence wing is regularly tracking his trades and sending the reports to senior-most government officials. These reports are drawn up every month and sent to SS Menon, national security advisor; TKA Nair, principal secretary to the prime minister; KM Chandrashekhar, cabinet secretary; GK Pillai, secretary, ministry of home affairs; and Ashok Chawla, secretary, finance ministry.
Strangely, there has been no regulatory action against Mr Parekh so far, even after his involvement has been widely reported by the media. This raises the question, why top officials of this country who have enormous powers to investigate and harass small businesses and even tax-payers who are senior citizens, are so benign about Mr Parekh's illegal trading even when they are being briefed every month about his enormous purchases and sales?
Another equally important question is whether the market regulator, Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) knows about these activities? Moneylife asked SEBI whether it has been briefed about Mr Parekh's activities, but has not received any reply so far. It would be stunning indeed if all the top officials and the regulator maintain a don't-hear-evil-don't-see-evil attitude, even as they sermonise about what is ethical and moral on various issues in the securities market.
We learn from Intelligence Bureau sources that their monthly briefing reports routinely reach the regulators in some form. The intelligence reports a few months ago documented that "using various front entities" Mr Parekh was active in Orchid Chemicals, GMR Infrastructure, Cairn India, Deccan Chronicle, Reliance Industries, Punj Lloyd, India Bulls Real Estate, Pipavav Shipyard, MVL, Amtek Auto, Hindustan Oil Exploration Company, Camson Biotechnologies, Crew Bos Products, UCO Bank, East India Hotels, State Bank of India, OCL India, Kemrock Industries, Tatia Global Ventures and JSW Steel. Further, KP has apparently "sold his holdings in HPCL and BPCL" in August.
Interestingly, Mr Parekh was also supposedly active in SKS Microfinance, "having taken up the share price from Rs850 to around Rs1,100." The report also adds that "KP using his Kolkata-based associate, Ashok Poddar, held a big position (5-6 lakh shares) in Parsvanath Developers. The report also informs the top government officials that "associates of Mr Parekh, such as Dinesh Singhania and Raj Aggarwal, contemplated modalities for IPOs, wherein cartel members would secure 50% of IPO proceeds from promoters of unknown or fringe companies. In this context, the IPO of Aster Silicates was discussed." Apparently, Mr Parekh is using a Chennai-based broking firm, Shri Ram Insight Share Brokers for his trading.
According to the reports, associates of Mr Parekh were involved in manipulating the Microsec IPO, both in its pre- and post-listing stages. "The gameplan included pre-listing short selling at Rs36 in the grey market, multiple retail and HNI applications through proxies, benami demat accounts and instant selling of the allotment on the day of listing to keep the price below Rs34 levels. Anticipating panic-selling by regular shareholders, the cartel members proposed to mop up shares and subsequently orchestrate a sustained hike through circular trading. Further, the cartel was also involved in the IPO grey market relating to Eros International Media, VA Tech Wabag and Carrier Point Infosystems."
A few months ago, Mr Parekh also planned to buy 60 million shares of Amtek Auto, alternately on the National Stock Exchange and the Bombay Stock Exchange. In June, the intelligence sleuths found Mr Parekh active on the counters of Dish TV, Piramal Healthcare, Pipavav Shipyard and Housing Development Finance Corporation.
Interestingly, Mr Parekh and his associates "were involved in market operations to raise funds in Temptation Foods. The plan included a cash transfer of Rs3.5 crore from one associate (DS) to another (GM) in return for which, GM was to issue a cheque worth one crore to Temptation Foods as application money for 14 lakh shares. While the normal preferential allotment of 14 lakh shares was to be at Rs36 per share, these were to be given at Rs30 per share to GM. Subsequently, KP and associates planned to hike up the shares of Temptation Foods, with the understanding that they would receive 50% of the profit. In the event of a loss, the promoter was expected to make good the losses by providing cash to GM through DS."
It may be recalled that Vinit Kumar, the present owner of Temptation Foods, was recently identified as being an ally of home ministry official Ravi Inder Singh, who was arrested for leaking out sensitive information to companies, and which also led to further revelations in the telecom scam. Vinit Kumar is said to have played a big role in the scandal. According to a report in the Mumbai Mirror, Mr Kumar was the go-between who would take information from Mr Singh to corporate houses, and in return give him cash and supply him with prostitutes. He is widely suspected to have strong links with Mr Parekh, the Mumbai Mirror report says.
When the Intelligence Bureau reports about Mr Parekh's activities are so detailed, the regulator's inability to check his market manipulation can only be deliberate. - Additional research by Sanket Dhanorkar