Leisure, Lifestyle & Wellness
Cabinet approves increase in maternity benefit
The Cabinet on Wednesday approved increase of maternity benefit from 12 to 26 weeks for two surviving children and 12 weeks for more than two children.
 
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has given its ex-post facto approval for amendments to the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 by introducing the Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill, 2016 in Parliament, stated an official statement.
 
"The amendments to Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 include increase of maternity benefits and mandatory provision of creche in respect of establishment having 50 or more employees," it added. 
 
According to the statement, the amendments will help over 1.8 million women workforce in organised sector.
 
Disclaimer: Information, facts or opinions expressed in this news article are presented as sourced from IANS and do not reflect views of Moneylife and hence Moneylife is not responsible or liable for the same. As a source and news provider, IANS is responsible for accuracy, completeness, suitability and validity of any information in this article.

 

User

Looks Can Kill: The Deadly Results of Flawed Design

Earlier this summer, 27-year-old actor Anton Yelchin was crushed to death when his Jeep Grand Cherokee rolled downhill, pinning him against the security gate in front of his Los Angeles home. No one will ever know exactly what happened in the moments before the accident. But we know that his car is one of more than 1.1 million Jeep and Dodge vehicles that are part of a recall by Fiat Chrysler. The problem? Flawed design.

 

Specifically, it's the unintuitive automatic shifter, which can make drivers think they've put the car in park when they haven't. If a driver were to exit the car with the engine not in park, all 5,000 pounds of the vehicle could roll away, crashing into any objects (or people) in its path.

 

Here's the issue. Traditional automatic-transmission shifters slide to a certain position and stay there, giving you tangible and visual clues about what gear the car is in. The "monostable shifter" in some Chrysler cars, on the other hand, moves and then returns to the center position, no matter what gear it's in. Besides some subtle clicks as you switch gears, there is nothing beside the tiny letters on dashboard or on the shifter itself (conveniently located right under your hand) to show you what gear you're in.

 

That said, if you do try to get out of the car when it's not in park, warning chimes will go off and alert messages appear on the dashboard. According to Chrysler, "investigation suggested these measures may be insufficient to deter some drivers from exiting their vehicles."

 

This flawed shifter "is not intuitive and provides poor tactile and visual feedback to the driver, increasing the potential for unintended gear selection," the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration wrote in a report issued earlier this year.

 

Problems with the shifter have been implicated in over 100 crashes and dozens of serious injuries, including three cases of a fractured pelvis, a ruptured bladder, a fractured kneecap, broken ribs, a broken nose, facial lacerations requiring stitches, sprained knees, severe bruising, and trauma to legs. If the confusing shifter did contribute to Anton Yelchin's fatal accident, it would be the first known death attributed to it. His family has filed suit against Fiat Chrysler, claiming that the vehicle and gear shift were "defective in design" and "dangerous to life and limb."

 

Victor and Irina Yelchin filed a lawsuit against Fiat Chrysler for the death of their son. Source: The Superior Court of California, County of Los Angeles

 

In response to an email, the company said that it "extends its sympathies to the Yelchin family for their tragic loss. As this matter is in litigation we cannot comment further at this time."

 

The current recall would not actually change the design of the monostable shifter. It's a software update that will automatically shift the car into park if the driver fails to do so before opening the driver's-side door. It doesn't correct the flawed usability design, but it does put in place a fail-safe to prevent accidents.

 

Yelchin's death is tragic. But it's not the first time - nor the last - that bad design has proven dangerous to life and limb. Many of these design problems are easily fixed, which can make them all the more maddening.

 

Take, for example, household cleaner containers that look like fruit juice bottles. I'm not sure who thought it was a good idea to make a concoction of toxic chemicals look like a refreshingly delicious beverage, but they do exist. And sometimes they're even sold side-by-side.

 

The colorfully packaged multi-purpose cleaner Fabuloso has a record of mistaken identity. In 2006 researchers looked at about four months of data from the Texas Poison Center Network and found 94 cases of people accidentally ingesting the household cleaner.

 

In case you don't believe that anyone would actually drink multipurpose cleaner accidentally, just ask the six long-distance mountain bikers in Norway who drank laundry detergent thinking it was an energy drink and ended up in the hospital.

 

The makers of Fabuloso, Colgate-Palmolive, did not respond to ProPublica in time for publication.

 

Other dangerously designed look-alikes include cooking spray that looks like insect repellant or furniture polish, or truck fuel additives that look like energy shots.

 

The realm of user experience design (or "UX" for short) is riddled with examples of preventable tragedies. UX designer Jonathan Shariat tells the story of a little girl who died after coming into the hospital for chemotherapy. Her cancer had returned, but that's not what killed her. According to Shariat, her nurses were so confused by the complicated interface of the electronic medical chart software that they forgot to give her three days of intravenous fluid before her chemo treatment began. She died of dehydration and the toxic effects of the undiluted drugs.

 

Confusing user interfaces are accused of playing a role in everything from plane crashes because of a confusing avionics display to the transplanting of infected organs due to badly designed electronic medical records.

 

Information designer Edward Tufte has long held that badly designed charts contributed to the 1986 Challenger space shuttle explosion. Even NASA agrees with Tufte that bad design (specifically, PowerPoint's bullet-point rich and information-poor style) contributed to the Columbia disaster in 2003. They explained in their accident investigation report that the debris that struck the shuttle was not deemed as much of a risk as it should have been, in part because of complicated slides:

2026it is easy to understand how a senior manager might read this PowerPoint slide and not realize that it addresses a life-threatening situation2026 The Board views the endemic use of PowerPoint briefing slides instead of technical papers as an illustration of the problematic methods of technical communication at NASA.

 

Here's that PowerPoint slide they mention, with Tufte's analysis:

 

Design has the power to make our lives better, and in the overwhelming majority of cases, it does. But when it's done badly, it can put our lives in jeopardy. So if you come across a flawed design 2013confusing software interfaces, an impossible to-understand gear shift, a juice-like bottle of cleaner 2013 say something. Tweet about it. Call the company in charge. The stakes are much too high to ignore the flaws, wherever they appear.

 

ProPublica is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom. Sign up for their newsletter.

 

 

 

 

 

User

COMMENTS

Anil Kumar

4 months ago

Good article. Like the hyperlinks to check in detail if one wants.

Abhijit Gosavi

4 months ago

Only a software update for such a major flaw? What if the software malfunctions? Probability of software malfunction very high!

How to file FIR and what are your rights
"Anyone can file a first information report (FIR). When you file FIR, it is your right to get a copy. If they refuse to take down your FIR, you can go the superiors or a magistrate. The court can direct police to register your FIR and investigate," says Vilas Tupe, former Assistant Commissioner of Police. He was speaking at the fourth session under the "Police & You" series. 
 
Moneylife Foundation with Police Reforms Watch & Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative (CHRI) and with support from Saraswat Bank have launched the 12-week program (every Wednesday) that aims to spread knowledge about protecting yourself, your rights, the Indian Penal Code (IPC), cybercrime and economic offences. Today was the fourth such session.
 
Mr Tupe, a highly regarded police officer, and recipient of President's police medal twice, with long years of experience in the crime branch and anti-corruption bureau, says, "Registration of FIR is mandatory for police. But remember, once an FIR is registered, only the court has the authority to quash it and not police. Also understand, police cannot force you to give a statement and you have a right to remain silent. Police also cannot handcuff the accused unless they have obtained necessary permission from a magistrate".
 
The event was held in the well-appointed auditorium of Saraswat Bank headquarters, Eknath Thakur Bhavan. 
 
The fourth session of the 12-week series on "The Police & You: What happens at a Police station? What is a First Information Report-FIR? What do you need to know about these?" was conducted by Mr Tupe and Dolphy Dsouza, Convener of Police Reforms Watch. 
 
 
 
Earlier, Mr Dsouza explained the concept of virtual police station tool as developed by CHRI. He said, "It is not just a training tool for the police but also an empowerment tool for the public, who can learn about responsibilities of police and different rights the public can claim in a police station, be they a witness, accused, female victim, male victim, or juvenile."
 
In the virtual police station, clicking on various icons of the members of police and public, or objects such as registers and phones, prompts a video and text box to open that explains these key procedures, and seminal resources such as case law and legislation are provided for even deeper learning. 
 
"The training video in 10 different languages provides a 360 degree view of a police station," Mr Dsouza said, adding, "Once something is clicked, detailed information is provided using videos, pictures and text boxes, with accurate legal and criminal sections provided for training. Critically, a 'learn more' button which serves as a resource archive, providing case laws, legislation, guidelines and other seminal materials for the particular process they are exploring is also provided so that trainers and public have every option to learn as much as possible on vital service related topics."
 
Mr Tupe then explained the process of filing an FIR and rights of common public. He explained, with examples, several steps involved in a police case and investigation. "Investigation, which is an extensive process of collection of evidences of a crime generally, begins with the recording of the FIR that in fact sets not only the criminal law but also investigation in motion," he said.
 
"By investigation we mean, criminal investigation, a statutory process through which the proof of an offence is established in a criminal Court," Mr Tupe said, adding, "It is the police officer, who has the prerogative right to investigate a crime, which is cognizable in nature. Section 156 of Criminal Procedure Code statutorily empowers police to investigate into cognizable offences without any sanction or order from the Magistrate. They are not under the control of the Courts or any judicial authority during the course of investigation. No Magistrate however high has powers either to interfere with or suspend the police investigation into a cognizable offence. Powers of the police are absolute in this respect."
 
Mr Tupe said, "Arrest of the accused person/s is major step in the investigation and that too as early as possible. Police then interrogate the person for his involvement and commission of offence and record his statement in the language spoken to by him. In comes the next stage of recording statements of other witnesses and after collecting medical certificate or post-mortem certificate, to file the charge sheet against the accused under appropriate section of Indian Penal Code and other enactments after eliciting legal opinion of the prosecutors concerned. The charge sheet should be in simple language and explicit. It should be filed as early as possible and there should not be long time lag between the lodging of FIR and the filing of charge sheet."
 
Talking about powers of an investigation officer, Mr Tupe, said, "A police officer in the course of investigation is authorised to arrest the accused residing outside  limits of his police station or to conduct a search outside the limits of his police station under section 166(3) Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC ) or to summon persons residing outside his limits. An officer in-charge of a police station, under section 156 CrPC and any officer of higher rank under section 36 CrPC is authorised to investigation."
 
 
 
According to the former ACP of Mumbai Police, police may have the option to refuse to investigate under the following circumstances.  
If the information is found to be a hoax
If the offence complained is trivial in nature eg. 
Domestic quarrel between father and son etc., theft of a flower, or newspaper.
If the dispute is of civil nature etc
 
Mr Tupe said, "If the police comes to the conclusion that a complaint given to them about a cognizable offence is false, they have a right to stop proceedings and to register a under section 211 pc against the complainant." 
 
"Each and every step of investigation should not only be true, genuine but also appear to be so and above normal criticism that may be levelled by the defence.  There should not be any loose ends left untied in the investigation.  A fair true and impartial investigation will certainly bring about the desired result of the success of prosecution," Mr Tupe concluded.  
 

User

COMMENTS

Vasudeo Shenoy null

4 months ago

Can IO take outside help for investigation

sunil

4 months ago

What an accused can do if he is handcuffed without permission from court ? and what he can do if IO(investigation officer) files charge sheet after 3 years of filing FIR?AND THAT ALSO WITHOUT MAKING ANY INVESTIGATIONS?

JOSEPH THARAKAN

4 months ago

From the talk Mr. Tupe delivered, I understand that there are not many officers who investigate offenses with a motive - "conviction" - in their performing their duty. One is forced to "buy" justice when approached the Police even if with a genuine complaint. My FIR filed on 24.01.2015 (MECR No.1/15) on an order dated 06.01.2015 from the Addl. Metropolitan Magistrate Court No.22, Andheri (E) under Sec. 156/3 IPC, is not progressing due lack of "buying" power or "influence". It may be that the "accused" in my FIR, are also involved in many other cases in the same Police Station. Thereby an indirect effect of "influence" of the accused in my investigation? It is necessary that Police personnel attend this kind of seminars and make them aware that they too are the "affected" people seeking justice.

REPLY

Vaibhav Dhoka

In Reply to JOSEPH THARAKAN 4 months ago

I fully agree with you sir,way back I was cheated by Kotak Sec.Ltd and its franchisee to the tune of Rs 20lakhs.Kotaks official said that matter is under SEBI's purview and EOW DCP.Pune obliged them by not taking any action,even though either of them or combined cheated and played fraud.This shows that money plays vital role in filing FIR.

Dolphy D'souza

In Reply to JOSEPH THARAKAN 4 months ago

Dear Mr Tharakan,

We understand your anguish and the delay in your case. Although we do not know your case, please do speak to us and maybe we could guide you on what we need to do.
Dolphy D'souza
Police Reforms Watch
9833884227


Dolphy D'souza

In Reply to JOSEPH THARAKAN 4 months ago

Dear Mr Tharakan,

We understand your anguish and the delay in your case. Although we do not know your case, please do speak to us and maybe we could guide you on what we need to do.
Dolphy D'souza
Police Reforms Watch
9833884227


Vaibhav Dhoka

4 months ago

Filing of FIR is right,but police many times take biased decision and do not file FIR even in genuine complaint.The authorities are not answerable to public.Then to approach judicial magistrate u/s 153- 156 is not feasible to all complainants.most of the times actions are biased not public friendly.Their actions are money friendly.

We are listening!

Solve the equation and enter in the Captcha field.
  Loading...
Close

To continue


Please
Sign Up or Sign In
with

Email
Close

To continue


Please
Sign Up or Sign In
with

Email

BUY NOW

The Scam
24 Year Of The Scam: The Perennial Bestseller, reads like a Thriller!
Moneylife Magazine
Fiercely independent and pro-consumer information on personal finance
Stockletters in 3 Flavours
Outstanding research that beats mutual funds year after year
MAS: Complete Online Financial Advisory
(Includes Moneylife Magazine and Lion Stockletter)