Book Reviews
Book Review of ‘Where Angels Prey’
An insight into ‘real’ political economy of micro-finance, told in the form of a novel 
 
Micro-finance institutions (MFIs) were supposed to deliver a win-win solution: making money, by doing a public good. But these two objectives turned out to be irreconcilable. A reconciliation was possible only by applying force, which MFIs actually applied, resorting to age-old, time-tested ‘third-degree’ methods. Soon, it acquired a proportion of a socio-political ‘crisis’ in the main theatre of Indian micro-finance industry, i.e., Andhra Pradesh (AP).
 
If one Googles ‘micro credit crisis’, the search engine throws up more than 1.5 million pages within 0.42 seconds. But can one imagine writing a novel based on it? That is exactly what Ramesh S Arunachalam, a known name among development practitioners, an occasional writer for www.moneylife.in, has done. 
 
Set against the backdrop of ‘Andhra Pradesh (AP) crisis’, that erupted in 2010, the novel chronicles the events of a 13-month period, from August 2010 to August 2011. Though the story unfolds in villages, jungles, dusty roads and tea-stalls in two districts (Warangal and Ranga Reddy), the reader is also taken to a stock exchange in Mumbai, chief minister's office, secretariat, hotel rooms in Hyderabad, district magistrate’s offices, police stations in district headquarters and newspaper and investment bank offices in New York. 
 
The author has consciously avoided using sector-specific jargon and terms; but he has hardly left any important aspect of this sector untouched. Though financial sector is at the centre of the novel, it does not confine itself to the sector to explore the reasons for the crisis; instead, it points to diverse reasons that flow from global capital into MFIs, Centre-state coalition politics, money laundering, political system and musclemen of the local political leaders and many others. 
 
Though the novel wears the usual disclaimer that “it is a fiction and does not depict any particular individual/ MFI / Institution in India, existing or past,” characters and events flash continuously in the minds of the readers who have kept track of newspaper reports of events which led to the crisis in AP. The book helps those readers in filling the gaps, joining the dots and unveils the ‘material’ relationships among the all the actors. It informs them why those actors must have behaved in the way they did and no other way.
 
However, the book also assures us that it is not pitch dark, yet. Bob and Chander in investigative journalism, Veena Mehra and Subba Rao in administration, and even Renuka and Vijaya, the ordinary villagers, all exhibited strength of conviction and stood by those poor borrowers who have become a ‘prey’ of the ‘Angels’ who had promised “to take them out from the hell of poverty.”
 
Arunachalam does deliver an ending to satisfy the reader. You cannot forget the burning issues with an ending where the guilty is punished. The reader gets a slap on his face in the last couple of chapters, particularly the Epilogue, which declares that “The moneylenders are back.” It informs that the investigative journalists and the well-intentioned administrators, going out of their way, to book not only the front men butchering the poor people, but even the most resourceful and influential individuals who were actually running the show, fail. The ‘Angels’ are rewarded by the State for ‘serving the poor’ in the form of granting a banking licence. The novel provides the deep insight into the real political economy that influences the functioning of MFIs.
 
Talk of regulating MFIs started after the AP crisis; but our lawmakers are busy with many businesses. The Micro Finance Bill, hanging fire for past many years, is likely to hang where it is in the foreseeable future. Even if passed, it is unlikely that the regulator will have the institutional wherewithal to reach out to remote places in Warangal and Ranga Reddy. The concerns of society will not be limited to wrongdoings in ‘micro-credit’ activities alone. Because there are quite a few new ‘micro’ products, viz., micro-insurance, micro-pensions, micro-housing loans, etc, waiting to target the poorer sections. The clientele of these ‘micro-products’ is identical; the agencies that are going to serve these products are being driven by identical business considerations. They have a grip of identical levers of State machinery, policy-makers and local political networks.
 
The author had a long career with a public sector bank and has since retired

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748 percent rise in Pakistan terror deaths over 10 years

As many as 56,480 people have been killed in Pakistan since 2005, at an average of nearly 14 a day

 

Pakistan’s rising graph of terrorism-related deaths shows no sign of slowing, with 43 people dead and 20 injured when six motorcycle-borne terrorists raked a bus with automatic gunfire in the Pakistani port city of Karachi on Wednesday.
 
Terrorism-related deaths in Pakistan increased 748.15 percent between 2005 and 2014. Over the same period, India saw a 70 percent decline in terrorism-related deaths.
 
As many as 56,480 people have been killed in Pakistan since 2005, at an average of nearly 14 a day.
 
Of those dead, 54.43 percent (30,799) were terrorists, 34.95 percent (19,740) civilians and 10.52 percent (5,941)security forces.
 
The bus attacked in Karachi was reported to be carrying around 60 Ismaili Shia Muslims. No group has so far claimed responsibility for the attack. Pakistan’s Shia Muslims have been frequently targeted by the Pakistani Taliban and other Sunni Muslim extremists.
 
Prior to the bus attack, 1,520 people have been killed in Pakistan in 2015 alone from terrorism-related violence, according to the latest data released by the South Asian Terrorism Portal.
 
Like Pakistan, neighbouring India too has suffered the effects of terrorism, although at a lesser level.
 
Since 2005, 19,385 persons have been killed, at an average of nearly five a day. Of these, 45.97 percent (8,911) were terrorists, 37.72 percent (7,312) civilians and 16.31 percent (3,162) security forces.
 
In India, 251 people have died so far in 2015 from terrorism-related events.

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How to conquer those sugar cravings
Take heart. There are a few simple little techniques which can help you tide over those vulnerable moments
 
What can be almost as strong, if not even stronger than hunger pangs, is sugar craving. One goes almost berserk when it strikes and one is willing to throw all dietary discipline out of the window for the sake of those sweet treats. Take heart. There are a few simple little techniques which can help you tide over those vulnerable moments.
 
Basically, excessive sugar cravings are a sign that your body is deficient in trace minerals like zinc, magnesium, chromium and vanadium that are involved in glucose metabolism. Increase the intake of yoghurt, chickpeas, almonds, oatmeal, asparagus, cheese, brewer's yeast, whole grains, mushrooms, soy beans, spinach, oat bran and brown rice to address the root cause of the problem.
 
Also, eat something spicy or with a strong flavour. Strong odours from pepper, butter, lemon or onion will tell your hypothalamus to take fewer sweets for the next few hours. But be on your guard. Don't replace the sweets with too much of meat or butter. That will be a remedy worse than the disease.
 
Inhaling the sweet scent of vanilla also calms down your sugar appetite. Not only smelling the essential oil but also massaging it on your neck and arms lowers the cravings. Mix 25 drops of vanilla oil in about one glass of water and keep ready. Apply liberally whenever cravings strike. It is better to smell like a cake than look like one.
 
Whenever you make tea, add to it a few leaves of Gurmar herb (Gymnema). The phytonutrients present in the herb form a coating on your taste buds so that sugar molecules cannot react with them. The result? Sweet things will taste far less sweet. Incidentally, Gurmar also happens to be a natural cure for diabetes.
 
Most low-fat foods are loaded with sugar. The fear of full fat foods has proven unfounded. All you have to take care of is the total quantity. Do enjoy full-fat granola bars and yoghurt. Your sugar intake will come down automatically. Just don't go overboard on the fats. Remember, there are no bad foods; just bad doses.
 
Another home remedy for addressing your sugar craving is to have a tiny bit of peanut butter. Your urge to have a sweet treat will be gone within minutes. Try it.
 
You will notice that your sugar cravings are the strongest, first immediately after a meal and then about two to three hours after it. While the first category is due to the force of habit, the second is indicative that your blood sugar has gone low. So, make sure that you never skip breakfast or lunch. Do take protein in some form or the other. Have mini meals every three hours.
 
Those who are sleep deprived are more likely to need a sugar fix. Even half an hour of extra sleep will not only make you more energetic but will also lower your sugar dependence. The scientific reason for this is that your brain makes human growth hormone (HGH) whenever you sleep. An increase in its quantity brings about better blood sugar control.
 
We all know that daily brisk walk is good for your heart. Well, it also controls your sugar craze. A 40-minute jog will keep your cravings under check for up to eight hours. Even 20 minutes spent in putting your legs to paces will curb the cravings for two hours. That is called killing two birds with one stone.
 
It is another matter that some of the runners think that running requires sports drinks. What they don't know is that these so-called health drinks are loaded with sugar. May be OK for an endurance athlete, but not for someone who just spends an hour or so on his morning walks.
 

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