Charges of serious misreporting and mismanagement again surfaced in the Indian micro-finance. The question is how could a company like Sahayata Microfinance, which was darling of so many investors, lenders and stakeholders go astray
I came across a very interesting news item in a newspaper today:
“Sahayata Microfinance Pvt Ltd has suspended the brass, including its chief executive, on charges of mismanagement. The Rajasthan-based microfinance company has also stopped fresh lending temporarily, to set its house in order. Following the suspension of management and poor performance, rating agency CARE downgraded its non-convertible debentures of Rs 19.5 crore from CARE BB+ to CARE B-. In September some board members pointed out prima facie evidence of the management’s misrepresentation of company performance. The board has ordered a detailed portfolio audit. The investors have placed an interim -management to control operations, to ensure the business continues uninterrupted. The company will resume loan disbursement from December. The board questioned chief executive, chief financial officer and other senior managers on charges of serious misreporting and mismanagement. ... While chief executive was suspended with immediate effect, the CFO and head of operations were stripped of their duties immediately. They were subsequently suspended.” (Business Standard, November 18, 2011, )
“Sahayata commenced operations as a society in September 2006 in Udaipur (Rajasthan); the promoters came together with their own investments to test the viability of the business in Rajasthan. In August 2007, the promoters acquired a non-banking finance company named Shree Hari Fintrade Pvt Ltd. In August 2009, the company got its present name. Sahayata’s assets under management amounted to Rs.800 million during mid-October 2011 compared to Rs.1260 million as on March 31, 2011”. (India Microfinance.com, November 9, 2011, ). The Mix Market website lists the growth of Sahayata’s loan gross loan portfolio and clients as follows:
Moneylife readers would recall that the “Udaipur-based Sahayata Microfinance recently raised Rs19.5 crore through the issuance of non-convertible debentures (NCDs), which have now been purchased by DWM (Cyprus) Ltd, a member of the Developing World Markets group of companies. The NCDs are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and have been fully subscribed. IFMR Capital was the sole financial advisor to the issue. The transaction allows the company access newer funding sources, which will support the low-income households that Sahayata serves across India.” (Microfinance Focus, April 23, 2011, )
Commenting on the issue of NCDs by Sahayata, a posting on the IFMR blog, April 13th (2011) notes that,
“This transaction is significant not only because it is the first time that Sahayata has raised funds through listed bonds, but also because this transaction allows the company access to newer funding sources, which will be a robust support system for the low-income households that Sahayata serves across India.
Congratulating Sahayata and IFMR Capital, Jim Kaddaras, Partner for Debt, Structuring and Legal Affairs at DWM, said, ‘We are delighted to have brought financing to Sahayata, in order to support thousands of low-income entrepreneurs across India. At a time of uncertainty in the Indian microfinance sector, DWM is committed to financing socially committed MFIs with strong management teams like Sahayata. We hope to provide further financing to the sector in FY2012.’
Vineet Sukumar, Head Origination and Treasury at IFMR Capital said, ‘This transaction is yet another milestone in IFMR Capital’s efforts to provide high quality originators access to debt capital markets. We are delighted that Sahayata Microfinance, a long standing partner and a participant in all multi-originator securitisations structured by IFMR Capital, has availed of funding from rated, listed instruments that enhance transparency for the company and the sector, and pave the way for alternative and sustainable funding sources’”. (IFMR Blog, April 13th 2011, )
Ok, so much for the recent fund raising efforts by Sahayata. What is really interesting is that Sahayata has won several awards and recognitions (national and international) for its good governance, innovative practices and the like:
Having seen this galaxy of awards and recognitions and also given the recent happenings with regard to misrepresentation of results and subsequent sacking of the CEO and other senior management, I was naturally curious to know about the investors in, lenders to and auditors of Sahayata:
That said, given all that has happened several questions remain unanswered:
1. How could a company that was the darling of so many investors, lenders and stakeholders go astray?
2. Are there pressures that cause senior management of some MFIs to seriously misrepresent their results and engage in non-transparent practices?
3. Is it that lending to the poor is unviable and unsustainable due to various factors like risks in livelihoods of low income people, lack of infrastructure, market imperfections and the like? Hence, do special allowances have to be made with regard to financial standards applied to MFIs and similar institutions?
4. How did an MFI that won so many awards and recognitions (international, national) come to this level? What due diligence did the award makers do and what does it say about their due diligence?
5. What were the investors, bankers, credit rating agencies, technical support organizations and stakeholder partners doing even as Sahayata’s senior management went about seriously misrepresenting results as stated in the news item listed earlier? What does it say about their due diligence?
6. What are the implications for international databases like Mix Market (www.mixmarket.org) that list MFI data on various parameters and well intentioned efforts like Micro-Finance Transparency (www.mftransparency.org) that seek to promote transparency in pricing using self-reported and other data from MFIs?
7. What are the implications regarding the quality of NBFC MFI regulation and especially, supervision in India? What was the department of non-bank supervision at RBI doing even as Sahayata’s senior management was seriously misrepresenting the results (as stated in the news item? This question becomes even more critical because Sahayata has been registered as an NBFC with RBI since 2007 or thereabouts.
8. What does all of this mean for Indian micro-finance? Should we not have a complete cleaning of the stables first before talking of revival?
9. And finally, are these happenings just an aberration or do they reflect a deeper malaise in Indian micro-finance?
As I have been saying for long – for as long as from May 2005 when the NABARD high-level policy conference took place at New Delhi (http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/todays-paper/tp-money-banking/article2191016.ece) – we surely need to determine whether the malaise in Indian micro-finance is deeper than assumed and/or portrayed. Without question, we need to urgently understand whether - just as it happened at the Ramalinga Raju led Satyam Computers - senior management and or others at some MFIs are perhaps the cause of the burgeoning frauds and misrepresentations of performance in Indian micro-finance (Increasing frauds, internal lapses at MFIs: Need to strengthen supervisory arrangements to protect the poor, )
Thus, given the information available in the public domain, the case of Sahayata must be viewed very seriously and Moneylife would like to caution investors, lenders and all other stakeholders including the Reserve Bank of India that unless there is a thorough study into and proper clean up of the operations in Indian micro-finance, larger micro-finance shocks could be in the offing. Make no mistake about that!
Taniksha Infotech, claims easy income on posting ads, uploading CVs, inducting people and generating IDs for UID. However, there is no guarantee that you will earn easy money
If the debate surrounding over the invasion of privacy with the government’s unique identity (UID) scheme is not enough, here is a company, which claims to have worked with the authorities in the project and is also selling UID kit for registration to anyone who has Rs5 lakh to spare. However, this cannot be confirmed from the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
Kolhapur-based Tanishka Infotech, which calls itself a business process outsourcing (BPO) services provider promises easy money for working on its different schemes from home. On its website, the company has various projects, under the non-voice category, from claiming easy income on uploading CVs, converting PDF to word files, adding a post plan to form filling and UID project. It offers compensation such as royalty income on the monthly billing.
According to the company, it sells an UID kit for Rs5 lakh. The kit consists of web cam, desktop, finger print scanner, eye/retina scanner, scanner printer and UPS. Further, the company will pay a Rs23 on per ID (identity) generated and 5% as royalty income on monthly billing. Surprisingly on the website of UIDAI, the company’s name is nowhere in the list of approved contractors or suppliers.
Taniksha Infotech, according to its website, claims to provide home based jobs, online jobs, offline jobs, pay per click jobs, affiliate marketing, making money online, ad sense, data entry jobs. Only catch is one needs to pay certain amount to become a member for a limited period.
For instance, in its ad posting plan, it pays Rs5,400 as monthly payout on the registration fee of Rs3,500. Maximum such posting is 1,800 and for each posting, it pays Rs3. The plan is valid for three months. The monthly income increases on various schemes under this plan.
Similarly, the company also has a project named, PDF to Doc, where it claims of giving Rs15,000 as monthly income on a registration fee of Rs11,000. The work is simple. One just has to copy paste material from a PDF file to a word file. It pays Rs10 per page. One has to give 1,500 pages in one month and the contract lasts for six months. Company also promises to pay 10% as royalty once the contract ends.
Experts say these business schemes use financial logic that is difficult to follow and the plan and the company is bound to collapse some time, if not immediately. In fact, several companies that collected money for giving income by just watching ads have vanished, thus duping thousands of people.
One of the readers of Moneylife told that, “A few months ago, while interviewing a young girl for a job, I first came across this scam. Later I received an e-mail from Tanishka Infotech about a Quick-Get-Rich scheme. I talked to the guys and realized it was a complete fraud and some gullible people were going to lose substantial amounts of money.”
As per the reply received from the Rajya Sabha, Congress MP Manu Singhvi and Kingfisher chief Vijay Mallya earned maximum annual remuneration, while another Congressman, Subbarami Reddy has declared assets worth Rs258.25 crore
Rajya Sabha secretariat has made the ‘register of interest’ of its members (MPs) available to an activist forum in response to an RTI application. However, out of 232 MPs, only 92 have given various pecuniary details. The rest apparently do not have any such interests.
Interestingly, many of the members who declared high assets to the Election Commission as part of their affidavit have also declared that they do not have any other financial interest as per the Register of Members’ Interest form. The top three such MPs who have high assets with no declaration of pecuniary interest are Congress MP from Andhra Pradesh Subbarami Reddy (Rs258.25 crore) followed by another Congressman Karan Singh (Rs57.89 crore) and Shiv Sena’s Rajkumar Dhoot from Maharashtra with Rs 29.53 crore as assets.
Among the top 20 MPs without any pecuniary interests include Information and Broadcasting Minister Ambika Soni (Rs17.59 crore), opposition leader Venkaiah Naidu(Rs7.72 crore), former Maharashtra chief minister Vilasrao Deshmukh (Rs5.93 crore), former sports minister MS Gill (Rs4.53 crore) and Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh (Rs 4.30 crore).
MPs who have declared their interests include UB group chief Vijay Mallya, actress Hema Malini, lyricist Javed Akhtar, TDP leader YS Chowdhary, mining big shot Anil H Lad, Jagran Prakashan CMD Mahendra Mohan Gupta and Amar Singh. Highest declarations per annum have been made by Abhishek Manu Singhvi (Rs50 crore) followed by Vijay Mallya (Rs41.30 crore) and Arun Jaitley (Rs10 crore).
Rajya Sabha MPs have to declare their pecuniary interest under Rule 293 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in the Council of States. Although the rules specifically allow this information to be given to public, the Rajya Sabha secretariat has been denying this information as it has been asked by the ethics committee to not disclose the information. The chief information commission (CIC) under the RTI Act had to issue a non-compliance notice to CPIO on 3rd October after which the information was given to the organisation.
The document, accessed by Association of Democratic Forum, lists the engagements Rajya Sabha members have with corporates in different capacities, and the (financial) benefits they derive from that. The register shows that 140 MPs have just put ‘n/a’ or nil across all the required fields; which ask for details of remunerative directorship or shares held with companies, acts of paid consultancy and regular remunerations received from other activities.
Around 28 MPs have declared that they get regular remuneration, seven have financial interests in the form of paid consultancy and 43 have professional engagements.